An independent panel will regularly review the person’s progress. Once they feel the level of risk has lowered, the person can be discharged from hospital. However, the care team may recommend they stay in hospital voluntarily. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends that arts therapies are provided by an arts therapist registered with the Health and Care Professions Council who has experience of working with people with schizophrenia. Your doctor may recommend a physical examination, and possibly some scans, such as an ECG. It’s important that your doctor gives you a thorough physical examination before you start taking antipsychotics, and that you work together to find the right one for you.They can also help treat some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as apathy or a lack of enjoyment and interest in things you used to enjoy.
Antipsychotics can usually reduce feelings of anxiety or aggression within a few hours of use, but may take several days or weeks to reduce other symptoms, such as hallucinations or delusional thoughts.
Antipsychotics are usually recommended as the initial treatment for the symptoms of an acute schizophrenic episode. They work by blocking the effect of the chemical dopamine, or other chemicals on the brain.
Some people find expressing things in a non-verbal way through the arts can provide a new experience of schizophrenia and help them develop new ways of relating to others.
For example, you may be taught to recognise examples of delusional thinking. You may then receive help and advice about how to avoid acting on these thoughts.
The CRT aims to treat people in the least restrictive environment possible, ideally in or near their home. This can be in your own home, in a dedicated crisis residential home or hostel, or in a day care centre.
If the care team think a person would be best cared for on a ward, they will talk to the person and encourage them to admit themselves voluntarily to hospital.These instructions can include your wishes regarding your treatment and who you would like to be contacted, such as a family member or a friend, in the event of a crisis.Rarely, if a person’s care team feels they are not able to make the decision for themselves they may need to be admitted under the Mental Health Act (2007). This is sometimes called ‘compulsorily admission’.An advance statement is a series of written instructions about what you would like your family or friends to do in case you experience another acute schizophrenic episode. You may also want to include contact details for your care co-ordinator.
All people being treated in hospital will stay only as long as is absolutely necessary for them to receive appropriate treatment and arrange aftercare.Arts therapies are designed to promote creative expression. Working with an arts therapist in a small group or individually can allow you to express your experiences with schizophrenia.
You’ll work together with your healthcare team to develop a care plan. The care plan may involve an advance statement or crisis plan, which can be followed in an emergency.
In situations like this the Mental Health Act (2007) does legally allow a person to be compulsorily detained at a hospital or clinic. It must be thought that detention is necessary to protect:There may be times when a person refuses to go into hospital but the clinic feels that they do not have the mental capacity to make an informed decision about their own care. Read more about how health professionals assess a person’s capacity to make a decision.
Which of the following has been most effective in the treatment of schizophrenia?
Antipsychotics. Antipsychotics are usually recommended as the initial treatment for the symptoms of an acute schizophrenic episode.
Antipsychotics can be taken orally as a pill, or be given as an injection known as a depot. Several slow-release antipsychotics are available. These require you to have one injection every 1 to 4 weeks. You will usually be given the lowest dose possible that it thought able to effectively control symptoms.CRTs care for people with serious mental health conditions who are currently experiencing an acute and severe psychiatric episode, sometimes called a ‘crisis’.Both typical and atypical antipsychotics can cause side effects, although not everyone will experience them and the severity will differ from person to person.
If you do not benefit from your antipsychotic medicine after taking it regularly for several weeks, an alternative can be tried. It’s important to work with your treatment team to find the right medicine for you.It’s only possible for someone to be compulsorily admitted to a hospital if they have a severe mental health condition and it’s in the best interests of:
These specialist teams provide treatment and support, and are usually made up of psychiatrists, psychologists, mental health nurses, social workers and support workers.
Advanced statements are not legally binding, so health professionals will always act in your best interest when required, but they will follow your wishes whenever possible.Do not stop taking your antipsychotics without first consulting your care co-ordinator, psychiatrist or GP. If you stop taking them, you could have a relapse of symptoms.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) aims to help you identify the thinking patterns that are causing you to have unwanted feelings and behaviour, and learn to change this thinking with more realistic and useful thoughts.
If a person’s care team think they would be best cared for in a hospital or clinic, they will explain that to the person and encourage them to admit themselves for care.
Your medicine and any side effects will be closely monitored for the first few months. After this your medicine should be reviewed at least once a year.
People with complex mental health conditions are usually entered into a treatment process known as a care programme approach (CPA). A CPA is essentially a way of ensuring you receive the right treatment for your needs.
An independent panel will regularly review your case and progress. Once they feel you’re no longer a danger to yourself and others, you’ll be discharged from hospital. However, your care team may recommend you remain in hospital voluntarily.An advanced statement can also give instructions on how you want to be cared for if you’re not in a position to make decisions about treatment yourself.
Tell your care co-ordinator, psychiatrist or GP if your side effects become severe. There may be an alternative antipsychotic you can take or additional medicines that will help you deal with the side effects.People with schizophrenia can experience what is known as an acute schizophrenic episode. During an acute episode the symptoms of psychosis, where a person is unable to tell the difference between reality and their imagination, can become overwhelming.
However, most people take medication for 1 or 2 years after their first psychotic episode to prevent further acute schizophrenic episodes occurring, and for longer if the illness is recurrent.
Which of the following treatments is most likely to be used to treat Annie?
Annie experiences disorganized thinking and communicates with people who do not exist. Which of the following treatments is most likely to be used to treat Annie’s problems? (Schizophrenia is most often treated with antipsychotic medications.)
Using aggressiveness on purpose to accomplish a certain goal is known as instrumental aggression. Because there is no emotional motivation behind this sort of aggression, only a purpose, it differs from aggressive aggression. In addition, it alludes to cognitive hostility. Human hostility has frequently been divided into hostile and instrumental forms by psychologists. In contrast to instrumental aggression, which is \”cool,\” hostile aggression is \”hot,\” impulsive activity driven by the desire to harm another person.Using aggressiveness on purpose to accomplish a certain goal is known as instrumental aggression. Because there is no emotional motivation behind this sort of aggression, only a purpose, it differs from aggressive aggression. In addition, it alludes to cognitive hostility. Human hostility has frequently been divided into hostile and instrumental forms by psychologists. In contrast to instrumental aggression, which is “cool,” hostile aggression is “hot,” impulsive activity driven by the desire to harm another person. The information on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Contact a health care provider if you have questions about your health. Intelligence is also strongly influenced by the environment. During a child’s development, factors that contribute to intelligence include their home environment and parenting, education and availability of learning resources, and healthcare and nutrition. A person’s environment and genes influence each other, and it can be challenging to tease apart the effects of the environment from those of genetics. For example, if a person’s level of intelligence is similar to that of their parents, is that similarity due to genetic factors passed down from parent to child, to shared environmental factors, or (most likely) to a combination of both? It is clear that both environmental and genetic factors play a part in determining intelligence.Cambridge Brain Sciences discusses a recent research study that identified 22 genes that have been linked to intelligence. (See Sniekers, et al (2017) in the ‘scientific journal articles for further reading’ list in the main summary to read the full research study.)
Sternberg RJ. Intelligence. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2012 Mar;14(1):19-27. Review. PubMed: 22577301. Free full-text available from PubMed Central: PMC3341646
The Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory offers an interactive tool called Genes to Cognition that provides information about many aspects of the genetics of neuroscience.Intelligence is challenging to study, in part because it can be defined and measured in different ways. Most definitions of intelligence include the ability to learn from experiences and adapt to changing environments. Elements of intelligence include the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, and understand complex ideas. Many studies rely on a measure of intelligence called the intelligence quotient (IQ).
Sniekers S, Stringer S, Watanabe K, Jansen PR, Coleman JRI, Krapohl E, Taskesen E, Hammerschlag AR, Okbay A, Zabaneh D, Amin N, Breen G, Cesarini D, Chabris CF, Iacono WG, Ikram MA, Johannesson M, Koellinger P, Lee JJ, Magnusson PKE, McGue M, Miller MB, Ollier WER, Payton A, Pendleton N, Plomin R, Rietveld CA, Tiemeier H, van Duijn CM, Posthuma D. Genome-wide association meta-analysis of 78,308 individuals identifies new loci and genes influencing human intelligence. Nat Genet. 2017 Jul;49(7):1107-1112. doi: 10.1038/ng.3869. Epub 2017 May 22. Erratum in: Nat Genet. 2017 Sep 27;49(10 ):1558. PubMed: 28530673. Free full-text available from PubMed Central: PMC5665562
What evidence suggests that intelligence may have an environmental influence?
Evidence of Environmental Influences on Intelligence Research also suggests that parents expect older children to perform better on a variety of tasks, whereas later-born siblings face lesser task-focused expectations.
Researchers have conducted many studies to look for genes that influence intelligence. Many of these studies have focused on similarities and differences in IQ within families, particularly looking at adopted children and twins. Other studies have examined variations across the entire genomes of many people (an approach called genome-wide association studies or GWAS) to determine whether any specific areas of the genome are associated with IQ. Studies have not conclusively identified any genes that have major roles in differences in intelligence. It is likely that a large number of genes are involved, each of which makes only a small contribution to a person’s intelligence. Other areas that contribute to intelligence, such as memory and verbal ability, involve additional genetic factors.
Which of the following is the best evidence that environment plays a role in intelligence quizlet?
Which of the following provides the strongest evidence of environment’s role in intelligence? Children moved from a deprived environment into an intellectually enriched one show gains in intellectual development.
Plomin R, Deary IJ. Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings. Mol Psychiatry. 2015 Feb;20(1):98-108. doi: 10.1038/mp.2014.105. Epub 2014 Sep 16. Review. PubMed: 25224258. Free full-text available from PubMed Central: PMC4270739.Plomin R, von Stumm S. The new genetics of intelligence. Nat Rev Genet. 2018 Mar;19(3):148-159. doi: 10.1038/nrg.2017.104. Epub 2018 Jan 8. PubMed: 29335645. Free full-text available from PubMed Central: PMC5985927. Genetics Home Reference has merged with MedlinePlus. Genetics Home Reference content now can be found in the “Genetics” section of MedlinePlus. Learn more Despite all that (or because of all that), there are ways of utilizing this trope without falling into that pitfall. Given enough time, Character Development can add to their personality and interests and pull them away from the MPDG foundation. The story may even be told from their perspective, revealing that there is more to them than bringing adventure to brooding guys. A MPDG with independent story arc and depth of character can even be the true main character of a work, with her companion being a hapless Drag Along recruited to assist her goals—his world-expanding adventure is incidental to her need for someone to carry the cooking pots and backup hang glider.The Manic Pixie Dream Girl may be featured as the Second Love, in order to break the character out of The Mourning After. If he’s a cynic, her goal may be to convince him that Silly Rabbit, Cynicism Is for Losers!. Finally, she may be presented as a cheerful variety of Threshold Guardian, all the way from less uptight to psychopomps happily welcoming their clients into “another adventure”.
It’s a long-standing trope (around since at least 1283), but the term was coined in 2007 by The Onion’s “A.V Club” film critic Nathan Rabin, who found it grating, as he believed it to be the result of Wish-Fulfillment from stir-crazy writers. He explicitly compared it to the Magical Negro, in that a Manic Pixie Dream Girl exists to help the protagonist achieve happiness without ever seeking any independent goals herself. Rabin would later disown the term, because instead of creating awareness of the “lack of independent goals in female characters”, the concept was misunderstood as a condemnation of ALL quirky and fun female characters.
A subtrope of Blithe Spirit, and related to Magical Girlfriend, Loony Friends Improve Your Personality, Uptight Loves Wild, and Damsel Errant. From the girl’s perspective, this trope becomes Single Woman Seeks Good Man, though whether the hero qualifies varies.
Compare Cloudcuckoolander, Genki Girl, Perky Goth, Uptight Loves Wild, Savvy Guy, Energetic Girl, Pom-Pom Girl, and Quirky Ukulele for similar personality roles. See also The Pollyanna, for when a female character adopts this attitude to her own life. May also overlap with Trickster Girlfriend if she enjoys playing tricks on the protagonist and deliberately misleading him just for the fun of it. Sometimes the Manic Pixie Dream Girl is a Hypercompetent Sidekick. Contrast Nerd Nanny and Yamato Nadeshiko for examples of calmer and more mature ladies. The Screwball Comedy is a genre driven entirely by this character type.
Have no fear, the Manic Pixie Dream Girl is here to give new meaning to the male hero’s life! She’s stunningly attractive, energetic, high on life, full of wacky quirks and idiosyncrasies (generally including childlike playfulness), often with a touch of wild hair dye. She’s inexplicably obsessed with our stuffed-shirt hero, on whom she will focus her kuh-razy antics until he learns to live freely and love madly.
“I brake for birds! I rock a lot of polka dots! I have touched glitter in the past 24 hours! I spent my entire day talking to children! And I find it fundamentally strange that you’re not a dessert person; that’s just weird and it freaks me out! And I’m sorry I don’t talk like Murphy Brown! And I hate your pantsuit. I wish it had ribbons on it or something to make it slightly cuter!” — Jessica Day, New GirlDeconstructions of the idea may show that they resent being considered only useful for the benefit of the main character, idolized as something that they are not, or that once the main character reaches their “enlightened” stage, the MPDG moves on to the next person who needs their help. An alternative type of deconstruction is for a character introduced like this to turn out to be dangerously unstable, tipping over into Cute and Psycho, or (more realistically) a damaged and unhealthy individual whose childishness, naivete, and irresponsibility quickly either cause them to wear out their welcome, or suck the main character into a codependent mess that can only end badly.One important thing to note about the genetics of intelligence is that it is not controlled by a single “intelligence gene.” Instead, it is the result of complex interactions between many genes. Next, it is important to note that genetics and the environment interact to determine exactly how inherited genes are expressed.Why? Many experts believe that this is because first-born children receive more attention from parents. Research also suggests that parents expect older children to perform better on a variety of tasks, whereas later-born siblings face lesser task-focused expectations.A child may be born with genes for brightness, but if that child grows up in a deprived environment where he is malnourished and lacks access to educational opportunities, he may not score well on measures of IQ.
What are the 4 types of aggression?
Aggression can be verbal or physical. There are four types of aggressive behavior: accidental, expressive, instrumental, and hostile.
Studies have found that people with lower intelligence are more likely to report criminal victimization, which can have serious consequences including physical injury, loss of property, and psychological and emotional trauma.Lehmann J-YK, Nuevo-Chiquero A, Vidal-Fernandez M. The early origins of birth order differences in children’s outcomes and parental behavior. J Human Resources. 2018;53(1):123-156. doi:10.3368/jhr.53.1.0816-8177
For example, if a person has tall parents, it is likely that the individual will also grow to be tall. However, the exact height the person reaches can be influenced by environmental factors such as nutrition and disease.
Zheng Y, Rijsdijk F, Arden R. Differential environmental influences on the development of cognitive abilities during childhood. Intelligence. 2018;66:72-78. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2017.11.005
What does Zillman's model of escalating aggressive behavior have in common with Novaco's cognitive approach to aggression reduction?
What does Zillman’s model of “escalating aggressive behavior” have in common with Novaco’s cognitive approach to aggression reduction? Both models fail to acknowledge the role of physiological arousal in the escalation of hostility. Both models consider thought processes to be crucial to the escalation of hostility.
Horta BL, Hartwig FP, Victora CG. Breastfeeding and intelligence in adulthood: due to genetic confounding? The Lancet Global Health. 2018;6(12):e1276-e1277. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30371-1Boutwell BB, Connolly EJ, Barbaro N, Shackelford TK, Petkovsek M, Beaver KM. On the genetic and environmental reasons why intelligence correlates with criminal victimization. Intelligence. 2017;62:155-166. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2017.04.003Karen Cilli is a fact-checker for Verywell Mind. She has an extensive background in research, with 33 years of experience as a reference librarian and educator.Akeem Marsh, MD, is a board-certified child, adolescent, and adult psychiatrist who has dedicated his career to working with medically underserved communities. What role do genetic and environmental influences play in determining intelligence? This question has been one of the most controversial topics throughout the history of psychology and remains a hot topic of debate to this day. In addition to disagreements about the basic nature of intelligence, psychologists have spent a great amount of time and energy debating the various influences on individual intelligence. The debate focuses on one of the major questions in psychology: Which is more important—nature or nurture?When you visit the site, Dotdash Meredith and its partners may store or retrieve information on your browser, mostly in the form of cookies. Cookies collect information about your preferences and your devices and are used to make the site work as you expect it to, to understand how you interact with the site, and to show advertisements that are targeted to your interests. You can find out more about our use, change your default settings, and withdraw your consent at any time with effect for the future by visiting Cookies Settings, which can also be found in the footer of the site.
Twin studies suggest that the variance in IQ is linked to genetics. This research suggests that genetics may play a larger role than environmental factors in determining individual IQ.
In addition to inherited characteristics, other biological factors such as maternal age, prenatal exposure to harmful substances, and prenatal malnutrition may also influence intelligence.
Ritchie SJ, Tucker-Drob EM. How much does education improve intelligence? A meta-analysis. Psychol Sci. 2018;29(8):1358-1369. doi:10.1177/0956797618774253
Here’s how the experiment went down. Children were put in a room with an adult, some toys, and a large Bobo Doll. (A Bobo Doll is one of those inflatable clowns that bounces back up when you hit it.) Half of the children sat in the room with the adult as they gently played with the toys, displaying little aggression. The other half sat in the room with the adult as the adult aggressively hit or kicked the Bobo Doll. Some of these adults used explicit language or even hit the Bobo Doll over the head with a mallet.Have you ever seen Big Little Lies? If you haven’t, you might want to skip over this example – it’s a spoiler! If you are okay with spoilers, read on. In the TV show, the sons of Nicole Kidman’s character start displaying various signs of aggression at school. Why did they start doing that? It’s later revealed they learned those behaviors from their father. After watching their father’s aggression, they began to mimic his behavior.
Not all aggression has to be violence, though. Have you ever seen Footloose? The movie features an iconic scene in which Kevin Bacon’s character dances quite aggressively throughout a warehouse. He does this because he’s so frustrated! Before he begins the dancing scene, the movie shows scenes from the movie of moments that frustrated him. If you’re frustrated, maybe you should try dancing instead of yelling!
Freud believed that these two instincts exist together in every human mind, and that all behaviors stem from the balance of these two instincts. This may explain why we take anger out on others. Even if this anger or aggression is initially directed inward, Eros overpowers Thanatos. In an effort to keep ourselves alive, the aggression is directed outward.
The frustration-aggression theory simply states that aggression stems from frustration. Frustration is likely to turn into aggression, but it doesn’t have to if a person has higher levels of self-awareness or self-control.
Think about this in your own life. Have you ever kicked something or slammed a door “out of frustration?” Maybe you’ve danced wildly through a warehouse to the song “Never,” just like in Footloose. These are all aggressive behaviors. Linking frustration to aggression almost seems like a no-brainer, huh?
It’s not hard to link moments of aggression to moments of frustration. Think of all those viral videos of people yelling at retail workers about mask mandates or other rules. All of that aggression comes from frustration.
But in 1920, he wrote that the life instinct just couldn’t explain all of the urges or behaviors that humans display. Aggression doesn’t always fit into our desire to stay alive and keep others alive. So in Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Freud wrote about Thanatos. This was the name he gave to the “death instinct.” The death instinct helped to explain why humans become aggressive, why they engage in harmful behaviors, or why they seek to recreate past traumas.There are still more filters through which you can look at aggression. How might aggression relate to ideas like operant conditioning? Cognitive behavioral therapy? Gestalt theory? If these connections haven’t been made, get in the lab and make them!
The social learning theory isn’t just a plot point on TV – it’s an effect of watching TV. A child who is watching violence on TV may also imitate violent acts. Hundreds of studies show that children who observe aggressive behaviors in the media may start to repeat those aggressive behaviors. This is why movies with violence typically have a more mature rating. What did Freud propose that we do about these instincts? Not too much. He believed that there wasn’t much use in trying to quell aggression when it comes from an innate instinct that is deeply embedded in the human mind. His proposal focused more on structuring society in a way that kept communities small. In order to protect the community, strategies would be devised so aggressive behaviors could be focused outside of the community, protecting all members. Practical Psychology began as a collection of study material for psychology students in 2016, created by a student in the field. It has since evolved into an online blog and YouTube channel providing mental health advice, tools, and academic support to individuals from all backgrounds. With over 2 million YouTube subscribers, over 500 articles, and an annual reach of almost 12 million students, it has become one of the most popular sources of psychological information.One of these theories of aggression may make more sense than the others. Or you may think that all of them make sense together. There is no right or wrong answer to the question of why we get aggressive. Frustration could have easily played a part in the Bobo Doll experiment, along with a child’s “death instincts.” But that is the fun of studying psychology – there is always more to learn and more questions to answer!
What are some examples of environmental influences on intelligence?
Intelligence is also strongly influenced by the environment. During a child’s development, factors that contribute to intelligence include their home environment and parenting, education and availability of learning resources, and healthcare and nutrition.
The first theory of aggression goes back to the days of Sigmund Freud. Freud’s theories on behavior changed over time. At first, he believed that all behaviors stemmed from Eros, the life instinct. These were the instincts that kept us alive and wanting to reproduce.The children who had observed the aggressive adults were more likely to exhibit aggressive behavior themselves. Children were simply imitating and modeling when they also kicked, hit, or were otherwise aggressive toward the Bobo doll. It’s from this experiment that Bandura proposed that aggression is learned not only through positive or negative reinforcement but also through indirect observational learning.
Psychologists have three main theories of aggression that attempt to explain why we become aggressive and whether that behavior can be changed. More theories have been proposed, but these three have stood the test of time so far and are key to understanding where aggression originates.
Even if you can’t remember the last time you were aggressive with someone, I can guarantee that you can remember a time in which you were frustrated with someone. Frustration is a common human emotion that comes up when someone or something is holding us back from reaching a goal. That goal could be as simple as finishing an essay or as complicated as answering life’s most profound questions.
The last aggression theory comes out of one of the most famous experiments of all time. The Social Learning Theory was proposed by Albert Bandura in the 1960s. Bandura is most known for his Bobo Doll experiment, which attempted to explain how children learn aggression from an early age. He proposed that aggression is a learned behavior. Children exert aggression simply because they are imitating what they have observed. Why does this happen? Why do we let ourselves get so aggressive? These moments of extreme anger may feel uncontrollable. People often “black out” due to anger and commit acts that they would have otherwise not committed in a calm state. There are certain states that allow “passion” to be a defense strategy in court. Is this just human nature, or something that can be controlled and done away with? The children were then separated from the adult and placed in a room alone with more exciting toys. After a few minutes, the toys were taken away in order to upset the children. All of the children were then taken into a third room, where another Bobo Doll stood. First, Lorenz believed that self-knowledge could help reduce aggression. Psychoanalysis (Freud’s specialty) could assist humans in this process. Second, Lorenz believed that social connections, especially across multiple groups, could reduce aggression. Think of how much calmer the world would be if all people were open to making friendships with people across political party lines, races, ages, and cultures. We would have a lot fewer people screaming at each other! Third, Lorenz believed our aggression could be channeled into less violent activities. Instead of yelling at the guy who cut you off in traffic, you could drive over to the gym and lift some weights. Theories on the source of human aggression can be helpful. But in the case of theories like Freud’s, aggression seems inevitable. Is it? Can it be avoided? Those are the questions that psychologists like Konrad Lorenz asked. Lorenz is best known for his work in animal psychology, but he also studied humans. He wrote On Aggression. The book touches on Freud’s theory of aggression, linking aggression to the preservation of the species. Lorenz also explores ways that we can redirect or inhibit aggression, which includes some of Freud’s methods as well.Think about a time when you got angry. I don’t mean a time when you just were ticked off at a coworker or annoyed with someone in traffic. Think about a time when you were really angry. If you can’t think of one, think of someone who got really angry at you.
Anger is a common human emotion, but it can spiral out of control very quickly. Anger over a parking ticket could turn into a broken mirror. A simple dispute at the bar could turn into a brawl. Wearing the wrong jersey in the wrong place could actually become dangerous.Aggression doesn’t have to be directly used against the thing that a person is frustrated about. Once the goal is achieved and the frustration subsides, the aggression may still be present. In one of the earliest studies on frustration-aggression theory, children were placed in front of a wire screen. Toys were on the other side. While the children could see the toys, the toys were just out of reach. This was likely frustrating for the children who wanted to play with the toys.These are the three main theories of aggression, but other theories within psychology touch on aggression, too. Take the Big Five. Psychologists took a look at the Big Five traits and how they related to aggression. Here is what they found:Once the wire barrier was removed and the children were able to play with the toys, researchers noted that their play was much more aggressive than when the barrier had not been in place initially.
This video will briefly touch on all three of these Theories of Aggression, where they come from, and how they fit into our everyday behaviors and attitudes.One by one, other teens took their masks off, following Todd’s courageous example. Teens opened up about their personal struggles, deep grief, and lies they’ve believed about themselves. Everyone around the circle wept openly. Each time a teen shared, other teens and staff gathered around them to comfort them with prayers and hugs. As we went around the circle, each individual voice was lifted up in prayer and song – some voices tentative and others confident, some experienced in prayer and others just learning. Partway through the second round, I realized that everyone was weeping. Tears poured down people’s faces as we lifted our church partners’ joys, pains, fears, and needs up to God. The following stories were told around the circle by GreenHouse year-round and summer staff as we reflected on the ways we saw kids and teens grow at The GreenHouse this summer.He turns to look at me. It’s just for a second. Our eyes lock and then he’s off again, talking about a squirrel up in the tree. I let the math go for today. We read books instead. We’ll connect with the teacher and his mom later. For now there just needs to be a moment, outdoors in this spring afternoon, when eight-year-old José can rest from the burden he is carrying.
His eyes are far away now. “My mom is looking for a job,” he says, “But it’s hard for her to find one.” He balls his right hand into a fist, and then slams it into his left hand, pushing it away from his body. “This is my family,” he says of his fist, “And we are pushing back homelessness.” He watches his left hand drift away, and then does the motion again, fist into hand. “This is my family, and we are pushing back the dark.”
Finally, to all The GreenHouse students who rehearsed and performed: Isaias, Nazila, Emily, Noah, Naomi, Calaysia, Nazanin, Odie, Anthony, Layla, Jacob, Auggie, Abraham, Faith, Domonique, Derricc, Niyati. We are so proud of you. Thank you for sharing the Christmas story with us in such a beautiful and powerful way.The morning of the trip, GreenHouse staff met to pray. Someone prayed from Ephesians 3:20, asking God to do “more than we could ask or imagine” in this trip. At the end of the time, I felt a deep confidence – I knew that God was going to show up. Finally, everyone arrived, and our group of teens and leaders piled into cars with our sleeping bags and pillows.
What are the 3 main models of aggression?
These theories include:Instinct theory of aggression.Frustration-Aggression Theory.Social Learning Theory.
In my years at The GreenHouse, it was the most powerful, vulnerable moment of parent sharing and prayer I’ve seen. Afterward, we sat in a peaceful silence, reflecting on the power of God. We decided to pray together again soon. Then we went our way, each person back into their morning plans, yet changed by the experience. After all the prayer requests had been shared, we continued to pray. Women cried out to God for their children, and for other children that they care about. People prayed for sick relatives, for broken relationships, for jobs, for deep needs. All of the desires, hopes and fears shared in our partners’ prayer requests were reflected in our own lives. Perhaps this was why we wept: our church partners’ vulnerable sharing united us in our common humanity, and opened our hearts to share our own deep needs and desires with God. But he was sure. He waded into the water and worked with the life guard to take the test for the umpteenth time. But this time he came running back, trumpeting, “I passed!!” He was so proud of himself. And I was so proud of him, for trying again… the ability to get back up after failure, to persevere in the face of disappointment, is so critical in life. At Oasis one evening (our teen faith formation group), we were painting after the lesson. As he brushed color over his paper, Jackson said, “I never knew that God cared about the things happening in my life. I never knew that he wants to heal me.” He shared about a painful past with his parents that left deep scars… all this while painting, eyes glued to the paper. The teens around him were quiet, listening, like, “Wow.” Jackson’s sharing set the tone for the rest of the group, and helped make a place for him in the community. It was powerful to watch God reach out and touch this young man’s heart, and to see him opening up in response. As I got the food out, a group of teens came over. It was the crew that had done Summer Cooking Camp together, and they came up to me as a team. “We know how to cook,” they said. “We’ve been doing it together all summer. How can we help?” One teen took over grilling the burgers, while another did hot dogs. Someone else got out the buns and prepped the condiments. It’s a wonderful story, with fun, creative parts for all ages. A great fit for the GreenHouse, right? So in May we held auditions, and in June began rehearsal, for a July 13 performance date. We went camping for two nights as the finale of our teen summer program, and the first night we got there late. It was hot, and everyone was exhausted. But worst of all, they were hungry. Hungry + tired + hot = HANGRY. And as the one with the food, they were mostly irritated with me.
“Let’s put on a play this summer,” suggested Pastor Dave Lindner, GreenHouse Board member, volunteer staff, community pastor, soccer coach, and drama teacher extraordinaire. “I know just the one – we’ll do a ‘Christmas in July’ theme. It’s called The Best Christmas Pageant Ever.”
I knew immediately what he meant. Carlos started coming around The GreenHouse when he was in 5th grade. He was warm, insightful and funny, but struggled with ADHD, so he was often hyper and distracting in class. At age 14 he went off his ADHD meds, and by sophomore year was seriously behind with credits. He was forced to transfer to a different school, where he earned straight F’s, got in trouble for cussing at teachers, and started using drugs and alcohol. Over the course of high school, he moved four different times – through public schools, continuation schools, and independent study programs – until finally he entered his senior year without the chance of graduating on time because he was far behind in credits.
This Christmas, three of The GreenHouse’s church partners participated in our Christmas Family Gift Partners program. In this model, members of local churches pray for a GreenHouse family, and donate gift cards for household necessities and gifts in the Christmas season. Church members are also invited to share prayer requests back with us, so we can pray for them as well. In this way we form a true partnership, through the gift of mutual prayer.
Long before the summer, I knew I wanted to take the teens on an overnight trip as the big “finale” of our summer program. I hadn’t taken the group out for a sleepover before, and I was nervous – I wanted it to be the best!! But there are so many details you can’t anticipate or control in planning a group activity. As I prepared, God whispered into my ear to slow down and not to worry. He had plans of his own.
What does Zillman's excitation transfer theory of aggression suggest?
Zillman’s Excitation-Transfer Theory (1979) Suggests that aggression is the result of learning, arousal or excitation from an external stimuli and an individual’s interpretation of that arousal.
One young man said quietly, “I’d ask God if I’m going to be able to achieve my dreams in life.” This seems like a straightforward question, but I know that this young man is a “Dreamer” – his family brought him to the US without papers when he was young. He’s working hard to be the first in his family to attend college, earning a 4.0 at a competitive local high school, but without legal status so much about his future is uncertain. He twisted his jacket sleeve in his lap as he spoke, nervous.The GreenHouse does many things. We run after-school programs and youth groups and summer camps. There is reading and math and art and gardening, all kinds of activities and gatherings. But all of that is secondary to our real calling on this block. It’s the true, deep work of seeing and loving, of listening, of being with day after day. Of opening ourselves to bear witness to the preciousness of the other. And in that moment of witness, we look together to Jesus, the one who does push back the dark, in our community and in our world.
Um. Not the conversation I’d envisioned at The GreenHouse today. I embarked on an attempt to explain the context and events of D-Day at a second grade level.
As rehearsals began, it became quickly apparent that putting on this play might not be so straightforward after all. Almost none of our students had ever been in a play before. Some of our younger actors struggled to read, so learning lines was difficult. Rehearsals were moderate chaos – kids were in and out, squirming, playing with props, arguing over costumes, pounding drum beats on the wall when they were supposed to be quiet backstage. Many of the kids were hearing the Christmas story for the first time. In other words, we were the Herdmans, putting on a play about the Herdmans.
He kept doodling as the questions continued. Why do wars happen? What about the people who died in the war? Did they go to heaven? What is heaven like? When Deborah returned to take him back to program, he ended by exclaiming, “I wish that God would walk through this door right now! I’ve got some big questions I want to ask him!”
If you’ve never read The Best Christmas Pageant Ever, it’s worth checking out. It’s about a family of six rambunctious kids – the Herdmans – who steal lunches, wham other kids on the playground, and generally wreak havoc around their town. One day the Herdmans find their way to Sunday School – mainly for the free dessert – and hear about the annual Christmas Pageant, where they end up cast as Mary, Joseph, and all the main characters of the nativity play. The Herdmans, who have never heard the Christmas story before, bring fresh eyes to the familiar narrative, and the chaos that ensues is hysterical, profound, and deeply resonant with the true meaning of Christmas.At the beginning of the summer, one of our eighth graders constantly recited the teen mantra: “I don’t want to be here unless my friends are here.” He had conflicts with other students, and sulked a lot when he didn’t feel like doing the group activities. Over the summer I saw great growth in him, a genuine process of maturing. With time, he began to take a leadership role with the other teens in the daily Garden Intern program. He was the one I gave my keys to when I needed someone to go get the tools, because I knew he’d take care of them and get the job done. When we needed someone to take over daily watering after the program ended, I asked him and he did a great job. By the end, he was a positive leader, welcoming new kids and modeling responsible behavior for the younger ones.
One by one, our young actors, suddenly subdued and serious, came out and stood before a full house of parents, younger siblings, community members, and crying babies. As folks cheered and filmed and smiled, something beautiful happened. Students got into character as they never had before. They remembered their lines, or helped each other subtly when someone forgot one. A student who swore he’d never sing in public sang a solo in the opening scene – with his eyes closed, but he did it. A seven year old got the biggest chuckle of the night with a comedic line, and then a second one when his whole face lit up at having made the audience laugh. Several GreenHouse parents made their stage debuts alongside their kids, in both English and Spanish, hamming it up and bringing delight to all who watched.
A few hours later, I headed down to join the teen Oasis group for their weekly Wednesday night gathering. As it began, it was almost as though Janelle, our Faith Formation Coordinator, had been listening in on my conversation with Isaac.Their comfort with each other and desire to help was a balm to my soul (I was hungry and tired too!) At the end, the food was great, and all the more delicious because of their teamwork. I loved seeing the way that their summer experience translated into real-time camaraderie and a heart to use their skills in service of the community.
After deciding who was going to be America’s Best Dance Crew, we gathered around the bonfire and made smores. Teens shared their favorite summer memories, and what they remembered about meeting each other. They told stories about how The GreenHouse had brought them together. After a while, a quiet young man named Todd spoke up. He shared that coming to The GreenHouse for the last year has changed his family, and continues to be a big part of their growth. In telling his family’s story, he began to sob. “I want to become a better son and uncle,” he said. The teens got up from their seats around the fire, surrounding him to pray for him.I remember one of our 8th graders, Josefina, being really distant last summer. She would hide behind her phone and sit in the corner most of the time, only interacting when necessary. This summer she came out of her shell, and put the phone away! Especially on the overnight Oasis camping trip, I watched her getting to know other students and listening deeply to the sharing. It was a joy to see the growth in her connection and sense of belonging over time.
Over the long, slow unfolding of years, The GreenHouse community loved on Carlos, and he loved back. It wasn’t a linear process, or an easy one. It seemed like Carlos simultaneously longed for strong boundaries, even as he deeply resisted them. Everyone could see that in some real way, Carlos was fighting for his life, and the struggle was bruising. But he stayed in it, and so did his GreenHouse mentors.
Carlos now keeps an eye out for younger students. He tells other teens, “Whatever you’re going through, it’s not more powerful than the plans God has for you.” He asks, “How are your grades? It’s no fun doing credit recovery. What are you going to do without a high school diploma? How are you going to help your family if you’re dead or in jail?”Hi everyone! I’m Janelle, and I lead the Oasis Teen Program at The GreenHouse. This summer the youth encountered God’s love in a powerful way, and I’m excited to share about it! The evening began with a barbeque, swimming and music. Soon a dance battle broke out – teens got into groups and created dance crews! I loved seeing two of our newest teens who were very quiet this summer lead dances and encourage others to jump in. One new student, Jackson, was quiet at first this summer. He came to every teen activity: Oasis youth group, R4 summer camp, cooking and gardening activities in the morning – just checking things out. The other teens watched him, trying to get a sense of himAs we walked, we noticed a figure sitting under a tree in the distance. After a moment we recognized Carlos, a GreenHouse teen we know well. We stopped to watch him, unobserved. He sat quietly, reading a book while the leaves turned slowly in the breeze above him. There was a long pause, and then, without taking his eyes off of Carlos, my co-worker said, “It’s like watching a slow-motion miracle.”
Which of the following is most likely classification of Annie's problems?
Which of the following is the most likely classification of Annie’s problems? Annie experiences disorganized thinking and communicates with people who do not exist.
Finally, July 13 arrived. In true form, things were precarious to the end. Just before the performance began, everyone needed to go to the bathroom – and we discovered that both GreenHouse bathrooms were locked, with no key. Pastor Dave came as close as I’ve ever seen to pulling out what remains of his hair. But by some miracle the bathroom doors got opened, costumes were assembled, everyone arrived… and then it was showtime. The GreenHouse rendition of The Best Christmas Pageant Ever began.