Low Sodium Hoisin Sauce

Each serving of Dynasty brand hoisin sauce contains 9 g of carbohydrates, 9 g of sugar, 1 g of fat and 1 g of protein. While hoisin sauce is a virtually fat-free condiment, it does contain high amounts of sugar. Sugar is the second ingredient listed on the Dynasty brand food label after water. Ingredients are listed in order of decreasing weight, making sugar the primary ingredient in hoisin sauce. Sugar digests very quickly and offers very little nutritional value other than calories.No matter what you eat, whether it be a bag of chips or a spoonful of hoisin sauce, it is important to read the Nutrition Facts food label for the calorie content per serving. Eating 50 extra calories each day can lead to a 5 lb. weight gain over the course of a year. One serving of Dynasty brand hoisin sauce is equal to 2 tbsp., and each serving contains 50 calories. It is also important to pay attention to your serving size. If you plan on using more than 2 tbsp., than you need to adjust your calorie intake for the rest of your day to stay within your daily calorie limits.

Hoisin sauce is a staple in Asian cooking. It is commonly used as a dipping sauce or in recipes such as Peking duck and mu shu pork. Hoisin sauce has a sweet and sour flavor from the sugar, vinegar and fermented soy beans it contains. While you may not consider the nutritional content of condiments like hoisin sauce, they can add calories and dramatically increase the sodium content of your meal.
Most Chinese food contains high amounts of sodium. Each serving of Dynasty brand hoisin sauce contains 410 mg of sodium. As a condiment and a recipe ingredient, hoisin sauce significantly contributes to the high sodium content of Chinese food. The American Heart Association recommends you limit your intake of sodium to less than 1,500 mg a day. High intakes of sodium causes your body to retain fluids and increases your blood pressure. When including a high-sodium meal in your diet, try to balance your intake by choosing low-sodium food items at your other meals.In addition to sugar, other ingredients in the Dynasty brand hoisin sauce includes white distilled vinegar, soybeans, rice, garlic, salt, sesame oil, caramel color, onions, red chili peppers, xanthum gum, spices, natural flavor, citric acid, star anise, sodium benzoate, autolyzed yeast, ginger and licorice root. While many of the ingredients sound familiar, some of the lesser known ingredients are used to improve the appearance and shelf life of hoisin sauce. For example, xanthum gum thickens the hoisin sauce while sodium benzoate acts as a preservative.

(As is the case with all of the recipes on this web site, the nutrition information provided in this recipe is only an estimate based on nutrition information provided on the packaging of each of the ingredients we used in this recipe and/or on a variety of sources on the web. This information should be regarded as an opinion only, with no guarantees that it is accurate. Obviously, the nutritional information will vary depending on the ingredients and quantities that you use.)The PubMed wordmark and PubMed logo are registered trademarks of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Unauthorized use of these marks is strictly prohibited. Background: Sodium intake in China is extremely high and eating in restaurants is increasingly popular. Little research has explored the sodium level of restaurant dishes. The present study aims to assess the content and sources of sodium in Chinese restaurants. Results: Median sodium content in restaurant dishes were 487.3 mg per 100 g, 3.4 mg per kcal, and 2543.7 mg per serving. For a single serving, 74.9% of the dishes exceeded the Chinese adults’ daily adequate intake for sodium (AI, 1500 mg per day), and 62.6% of dishes exceeded the proposed intake for preventing non-communicable chronic diseases (PI, 2000 mg per day). Cooking salt was the leading source of sodium in Chinese restaurant dishes (45.8%), followed by monosodium glutamate (17.5%), food ingredients (17.1%), soy sauce (9.4%), and other condiments/seasonings (10.2%). More types of salted condiments/seasonings use were related to higher sodium level. Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained from the baseline survey of the Restaurant-based Intervention Study (RIS) in 2019. A total of 8131 best-selling restaurant dishes with detailed recipes from 192 restaurants in China were included. Sodium content per 100 g and per serving were calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table. The proportion of restaurant dishes exceeding the daily sodium reference intake level in a single serving and the major sources of sodium were determined. Conclusions: The sodium levels in Chinese restaurant dishes are extremely high and variable. In addition to cooking salt, other salted condiments/seasonings also contribute a large proportion of sodium. Coordinated sodium reduction initiatives targeting the main sources of sodium in restaurant dishes are urgently needed.Allergic to peanut butter? Try this combination of miso and raisins, plus a few other ingredients for a new spin on hoisin. This variation provides authentic flavors from the miso, which is made from soybeans, and sesame oil.

Hi there, I’m Angela! I am an avid vintage cookbook collector, recipe creator, animal lover, and total foodie. I love sharing recipes that are new, fun, and creative as well as great classic recipes just like my Grandma used to make!
If you are looking for a hoisin sauce substitute, I’ve gathered a list of the best alternatives that will leave everyone none-the-wiser! I’ve got easy, straightforward swaps and a few unexpected replacements that are sure to get the job done!Angela is an at home chef that developed a passion for all things cooking and baking at a young age in her Grandma’s kitchen. After many years in the food service industry, she now enjoys sharing all of her family favorite recipes and creating tasty dinner and amazing dessert recipes here at Bake It With Love!

What soy sauce has the least amount of sodium?
Top 5 Low-Sodium Soy SaucesYamasa|Less Salt Brewed Soy Sauce.Best of Thailand|Premium Lite Soy Sauce.Kikkoman|Less Sodium Soy Sauce.San J|Reduced Sodium Gluten-Free Tamari.Akita|Low Sodium Soy Sauce.
The best substitute for hoisin sauce is the one that is easiest for you! As with all substitutes, there will be a change in flavor from the original recipe.If you decide you want some of that complexity, but without any extra prep and blending, add in a dash of sweetness with a bit of sugar or honey. Try adding 1 teaspoon of sugar or honey for every 1 tablespoon of soy sauce.

Start with 1 teaspoon each of soy sauce and rice wine vinegar for every Tablespoon of teriyaki sauce. If you don’t have rice wine vinegar, just add 1 teaspoon of soy sauce.
The best substitute will depend on how the hoisin is used in the recipe. Hoisin is made up of several flavors. This complex flavor combination means that the best substitutes will also be a combination of several ingredients.

What makes Chinese food so high in sodium?
Cooking salt was the leading source of sodium in Chinese restaurant dishes (45.8%), followed by monosodium glutamate (17.5%), food ingredients (17.1%), soy sauce (9.4%), and other condiments/seasonings (10.2%). More types of salted condiments/seasonings use were related to higher sodium level.
If you want a sauce that has a few more layers of flavor, check out the hoisin sauce recipe variations below. These are perfect for any recipe calling for hoisin sauce, but especially great for glazes or as a dipping sauce. However, it will not provide the same taste as hoisin. The flavor will be simple and missing the complexity of the sweet and savory taste of the original recipe made with hoisin. If you are like me, you love Asian food but do not always love the price of eating out. If you have found this blog, then you have probably started to explore how to recreate some of your favorite Asian dishes at home.If you can find black bean paste at your grocery store, by all means – give it a go! The black bean paste alone won’t give you the layers of a traditional hoisin sauce.

I don’t see why not! The best way to find your preferred hoisin substitute is to play around. Try sweeter peanut butter (when applicable) with half the recommended amount of the sweet additive. Give it a taste and adjust it as needed!
The substitutes above are best used for a recipe that includes hoisin in smaller quantities. However, in many recipes hoisin sauce is the main flavor ingredient. For example, any chicken, pork, or beef dish that calls for a glaze or marinade.

Can I replace soy sauce with hoisin?
Hoisin Sauce While it has a more complex consistency and flavor profile than soy sauce, it is a yummy option for those who want to take their stir-fry to the next level. Use hoisin sauce in a 1:1 exchange for soy sauce.
A key ingredient in many traditional hoisin sauce recipes is black bean paste, therefore, its cousin black bean sauce is great as an authentic substitute. Black bean sauce can be used as a 1:1 substitute for hoisin.It may seem like trying to recreate your favorite Asian-inspired dishes at home may be complicated. The flavors are often complex, recreating them doesn’t have to be! All you need is the secret sauce.

The first several substitutes can quickly be made with a few ingredients that you quickly whisk together. These substitutes will provide you with a simple flavor combo of the sweet, tangy, and salty tastes found in hoisin sauce and are perfect for stir-fry-style dishes.

What is a good substitute for hoisin sauce?
Ready-made hoisin sauce alternativessoy sauce.tamari, which is suitable for gluten-free diets.oyster sauce.chili sauce.barbecue sauce.sweet and sour sauce.teriyaki sauce.
The complex flavor of hoisin comes from a combination of several ingredients. Traditionally, it is made with soybeans or black bean paste, vinegar, sugar, garlic, and various spices.Therefore, I would recommend only using this in dishes that call for a small amount of hoisin sauce. I would also recommend starting with a ¼ of the amount the recipe calls for and then adding more as needed.

Even though you will find several options for different ingredients you can use in your own hoisin substitute, you will notice all of them aim to include a balance between sweet, salty, and tangy ingredients. These three flavors are key to a good hoisin sauce substitute.
Add 2 tablespoons of either honey or molasses and a ½ tablespoon soy sauce to ½ cup barbecue sauce. If you have some Chinese Five-Spice powder, add 1 teaspoon of that as well.Peanut butter may sound like an odd ingredient for a sauce; however, it is one of the closest consistencies to the black bean or soybean paste used in traditional hoisin recipes. It’s also a lot easier to find than black bean paste!

The exact shelf-life of these homemade substitutes varies based on the ingredients. The safest bet is to place unused sauce in an airtight container in the refrigerator and use it within 3 weeks.
Hoisin sauce is the go-to for Asian barbecue dishes, so using a good old American BBQ sauce is a yummy substitute with an American flare. One major difference between these two styles of barbecue sauces is again the complex flavors.

Can you use teriyaki sauce instead of hoisin?
Teriyaki sauce naturally provides the sweetness of hoisin that some of the other sauces are missing. It is also a similar consistency to hoisin. If you plan to use teriyaki sauce as a simple 1:1 substitute, be mindful that the sweetness will usually be stronger than the original recipe.
While the suggestions above will work, take a look at the ideas below for substitutes that provide the closest flavor combos and consistency as the original secret sauce.

While black bean sauce will provide a similar consistency to hoisin sauce, like soy sauce it won’t provide the complex flavors. To punch up the flavor add in your choice of sweetener and even some soy sauce for saltiness and rice wine vinegar for tang.
If you are making a quick dish like a stir fry and want a simple 1:1 ingredient substitute, soy sauce is a good option. Commonly used in Asian cooking, soy sauce will provide a simple flavor substitute that maintains authentic flavor. Traditional hoisin sauce often includes a layer of spice that comes from garlic. To get that next layer of flavor, add a few more ingredients to the simple peanut butter and soy sauce mixture. Hoisin sauce is a dark brown sauce with a complex flavor palette of sweet and salty. It is used as a glaze for meats or as a delicious addition to stir fry. Many people love to use it as a dipping sauce as well.The addition of a few other fun ingredients gives you the perfect balance of all the delicious complexities of hoisin. Blend everything together and use it as 1:1 exchange for your hoisin sauce.

There’s an easy way to stretch the flavor of this element while making it less salty, depending on the soy sauce variety you’re using. The simplest way is to dilute the soy sauce with a bit of water. This makes it easier to taste the salt level before adding the soy sauce to the dish, giving you greater control over the result. A little soy sauce goes a long way. Not only does this condiment have a salty taste that can be overpowering, but it contains a significant amount of sodium. To control the taste and sodium level in your dish, the easiest methods are to dilute the soy sauce or switch to a lite version. Next time you utilize this flavoring to add some extra umami to your dish, you can avoid stress and uncertainty knowing you can taste how diluted your soy sauce is before adding it to your food or serving it as a dipping sauce. However, it’s easy to add too much soy sauce, resulting in a much too salty dish. There’s a delicate balance between not adding enough flavor and ending up with way too much sodium. The former will leave the end result bland and disappointing, and the latter could render the food unpalatable.For many, the solution is low-sodium, or lite, soy sauce — not to be confused with light versus dark as described above. This is a contested topic in the culinary community. Cookbook author Grace Young, via Washington Post, noted that in the past, low-sodium soy sauce was not a good option in terms of flavor. However, in recent years, some of these varieties have improved and are now acceptable substitutes for full-sodium light soy sauce. She also recommended adding coconut aminos to lite soy sauce if necessary to enhance the flavor.

Given these options, there are a variety of ways to reduce the salty taste of soy sauce. Be sure to double-check the label when purchasing or diluting your flavoring so you know you’re doing it the correct way so as not to adversely affect the taste. If you decide to try a lite version, give it a taste to see if the flavor is as you intend it to be before adding it to your dish.This sauce is an Asian version of a barbecue sauce and is perfect with grilled or sauteed meats and vegetables. It’s thick, has a strong fragrance and salty-sweet taste thanks to peanut butter and brown sugar. This homemade version is simplified with common ingredients, you can find in your local grocery store. Jazz up your next Asian takeout dinner with this delicious sauce and never go back to the store-bought stuff again!

Make this Homemade Hoisin Sauce substitute in 5 minutes and forget the store-bought stuff. This sauce is perfect in Asian dishes as a dip or a glaze for meats or sauce for stir fry.
Hoisin Sauce can be used just like BBQ sauce: as a glaze for grilled meat or as a dipping sauce for fried eggrolls, wontons or dumplings. You can add it to stir-fries like you would with teriyaki sauce. It is also a great marinade for chicken and can be used to make a salad vinaigrette.

Hi there, what cold i use in place of the peanut butter, even though its only a small amount, a family member has a nut allergy and another one has to have a very low sodium diet, also another has an intolerance to chilli so i will leave out the sweet chili sauce & chili flakes so im looking for home made sauce options.
Hi, I’m Anna! Thank you for stopping by! Here you will find easy and delicious recipes for busy people. My recipes are made with everyday ingredients and all of them are family approved!The study was approved by the Review Board of the National Institute for Nutrition and Health, China CDC (20180314), and Queen Mary Research Ethics Committee (QMERC2018/14). Ahuja JK, Pehrsson PR, Haytowitz DB, Wasswa-Kintu S, Nickle M, Showell B, et al. Sodium monitoring in commercially processed and restaurant foods. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101:622–31. Sodium levels in a single serving of the restaurant dishes were compared to the Chinese DRIs: the daily AI (adequate intake, 1500 mg per day) and PI (proposed intakes for preventing non-communicable chronic diseases, 2000 mg per day) for adults aged 18 to 49 years old. Restaurant dishes were compared to the Chinese DRIs because restaurant sodium reduction targets have not been established in China. The proportions of restaurant dishes exceeding the daily sodium AI and PI in a single serving were calculated.Overall, cooking salt was the leading source of sodium in Chinese restaurant dishes, accounting for 45.8% of the sodium (Fig. 1). Monosodium glutamate was the second contributor (17.5%), followed by food ingredients (17.1%), soy sauce (9.4%), and other condiments/seasonings (10.2%). Beside the sodium already contained in the food ingredients, the majority (82.9%) of the sodium came from the use of salted condiments/seasonings added while cooking. However, cooking salt only contributed to less than half of the sodium contained in restaurant dishes. Monosodium glutamate, soy sauce and other condiments/seasonings (such as other sauces and compound condiments/seasonings) contributed to more than a third of total sodium content in restaurant dishes.

Powles J, Fahimi S, Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Shi P, Ezzati M, et al. Global, regional and national sodium intakes in 1990 and 2010: A systematic analysis of 24 h urinary sodium excretion and dietary surveys worldwide. BMJ Open. 2013;3:e003733.By using this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Your US state privacy rights, Privacy statement and Cookies policy. Your privacy choices/Manage cookies we use in the preference centre.

This research was part of the research programme by the NIHR Global Health Research Unit Action on Salt China (ASC), which was commissioned by the National Institute of Health Research using Official Development Assistance (ODA) funding (16/136/77). The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the National Institute for Health Research or the Department of Health.In China, cooking habits and consumers’ preferred taste make sodium reduction difficult in restaurant foods. However, attempts to explore effective sodium reduction strategies for restaurant in China have been made [36]. The RIS program, part of Action on Salt China (ASC), aims to determine the sodium level of restaurant dishes and evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive restaurant salt reduction package in China, which consists of menu labelling, chef and waiter/waitress training, reformulation, supportive environment building, and sodium reduction campaign. In addition, monitoring the sodium content of restaurant foods is essential to set specific sodium reduction targets by food categories and help consumers understand the benefits of opting for low-sodium options when eating out.Sodium intake in China is extremely high and eating in restaurants is increasingly popular. Little research has explored the sodium level of restaurant dishes. The present study aims to assess the content and sources of sodium in Chinese restaurants.

Park S, Lee H, Seo DI, Oh KH, Hwang TG, Choi BY. Educating restaurant owners and cooks to lower their own sodium intake is a potential strategy for reducing the sodium contents of restaurant foods: a small-scale pilot study in South Korea. Nutr Res Pract. 2016;10:635–40.Graudal NA, Hubeck-Graudal T, Jurgens G. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;4:CD004022.

Is all Chinese food high in sodium?
Conclusions. The sodium levels in Chinese restaurant dishes are extremely high and variable. In addition to cooking salt, other salted condiments/seasonings also contribute a large proportion of sodium.
Eyles H, Shields E, Webster J, Ni MC. Achieving the WHO sodium target: estimation of reductions required in the sodium content of packaged foods and other sources of dietary sodium. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104:470–9.The strengths of our study include the large sample of restaurant dishes based on both major types of food served in the restaurants and foods frequently ordered by consumers from 6 provinces in China. The notable differences of restaurant food types between China and other countries [37, 38], call for more data based on local studies. Furthermore, we used standard reporting formats (sodium mg per 100 g) to facilitate comparisons across regions, restaurant sizes and dish types. We also reported the sodium content per serving, to help customers compare sodium content between various menu options. Finally, the large sample size in our study could capture the variability in sodium level in restaurant dishes, making the results more robust. Jia X, Liu J, Chen B, Jin D, Fu Z, Liu H, et al. Differences in nutrient and energy contents of commonly consumed dishes prepared in restaurants v. at home in Hunan province, China. Public Health Nutr. 2018;21:1307–18. Figure 2 shows the proportion of restaurant dishes containing the main sources of sodium, by dish type. Overall, 76.8% of the dishes contained cooking salt, 71.1% contained monosodium glutamate and 41.7% contained soy sauce. Other condiments/seasonings were found in most (94.2%) restaurant dishes. Cooking salt was a major source of sodium in all type restaurant dishes, especially in soups (91.9%) and fried dishes (77.8%). Monosodium glutamate was more often used in soups (80.9%) and fried dishes (73.0%), followed by cold dishes (60.0%). Soy sauce was found in 43.8% of the fried dishes and 33.0% of the cold dishes. In staples/snack, prevalence of condiments/seasonings was below 50%, except for that of other condiments/seasonings.Prentice CA, Smith C, McLean RM. Sodium in commonly consumed fast foods in New Zealand: a public health opportunity. Public Health Nutr. 2016;19:958–66.“Action on Salt China” (ASC) is a unit for salt reduction, established in June 2017, in collaboration with Queen Mary University of London in the United Kingdom, The George institute for Global Health in China, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and other key national organizations [22]. The ASC program consists of four randomized controlled trials (RCTs), targeting various sources of salt intake in China. As one of the RCTs in ASC, the restaurant-based intervention study (RIS) is designed to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a package of interventions for salt reduction in 192 restaurants from 6 provinces of China. The present article describes the baseline data of RIS to determine the sodium content and sources in popular restaurant dishes in China, which will be helpful in developing effective strategies to reduce salt in restaurant foods.

High sodium intake is a public health concern worldwide, as it is linked to elevated blood pressure, which leads to cardiovascular disease [1,2,3]. In 2010, the global mean level of sodium intake was 3950 mg/day, nearly twice the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of 2000 mg/day [4, 5]. The Global Burden of Disease Study showed that 3 million deaths were attributable to the high salt intake in 2017 and about half of these deaths occurred in China [1]. East Asia is one of the regions with the highest sodium intake in the world [4]. According to the China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance (CNNHS) 2010–2012, Chinese adults consume 5013 mg/day of sodium on average, much higher than both the WHO and Chinese recommendations [6, 7]. High sodium intake is the leading risk factor for cardiometabolic mortality in China (population attributable fraction (PAF) of 17.3%) [8]. To tackle the adverse effects of high sodium consumption, many countries have implemented salt reduction strategies in recent years [9,10,11,12].
Drewnowski A, Rehm CD. Sodium intakes of US children and adults from foods and beverages by location of origin and by specific food source. Nutrients. 2013;5:1840–55.

The sodium levels in Chinese restaurant dishes are extremely high and variable. In addition to cooking salt, other salted condiments/seasonings also contribute a large proportion of sodium. Coordinated sodium reduction initiatives targeting the main sources of sodium in restaurant dishes are urgently needed.Jones A, Magnusson R, Swinburn B, Webster J, Wood A, Sacks G, et al. Designing a healthy food partnership: lessons from the Australian food and health dialogue. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:651.

Webster J, Trieu K, Dunford E, Nowson C, Jolly KA, Greenland R, et al. Salt reduction in Australia: from advocacy to action. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2015;5:207–18.
Ahuja JK, Wasswa-Kintu S, Haytowitz DB, Daniel M, Thomas R, Showell B, et al. Sodium content of popular commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States. Prev Med Rep. 2015;2:962–7.Byrd K, Almanza B, Ghiselli RF, Behnke C, Eicher-Miller HA. Adding sodium information to casual dining restaurant menus: beneficial or detrimental for consumers? Appetite. 2018;125:474–85.

Nguyen BT, Powell LM. The impact of restaurant consumption among US adults: effects on energy and nutrient intakes. Public Health Nutr. 2014;17:2445–52.The RIS baseline assessment survey was carried out in 6 provinces of China (Qinghai, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hunan, Sichuan and Jiangxi) in May 2019. For each province, 2 counties of similar socioeconomic level were selected in the provincial capital city. Then, according to the selection criteria, 16 restaurants mainly offering Chinese cuisine were selected from each county, including 4 large-size, 8 medium-size and 4 small-size restaurants [23]. The detailed recipes of the 50 best-selling dishes from each restaurant were collected by trained investigators. For restaurants offering fewer than 50 dishes in their menu, all the dishes were included.

Scourboutakos MJ, L’Abbe MR. Changes in sodium levels in chain restaurant foods in Canada (2010-2013): a longitudinal study. CMAJ Open. 2014;2:E343–51.
Mozaffarian D, Fahimi S, Singh GM, Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Engell RE, et al. Global sodium consumption and death from cardiovascular causes. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:624–34. A number of limitations also exist. Sodium content assessing methods usually include laboratory analysis, menu labelling or online nutrition information provided by restaurant companies, and analysis with a nutrient database [39]. There are assessment differences between laboratory and menu items analysis, which may be due to differences in reported versus actual portion size and recall bias by chefs. However, due to the lack of publicly available menu nutrient values and the expensive cost of laboratory analyses, we considered menu items analysis the most cost-effective method to assess the sodium content of restaurant foods in China, especially with such a large sample size. In addition, with the rapid pace of restaurant foods development, this cross-sectional survey could not capture changes of sodium levels. Furthermore, the results in this study could not represent the sodium level for all Chinese restaurant dishes due to wide variations in restaurant foods. Some countries have tracking the sodium content in restaurant foods [40], which will provide dynamic data to guide restaurants in increasing the availability of lower-sodium foods and help consumers decrease their sodium intake. The analysis included a total 8131 dishes from 192 restaurants in 6 provinces of China. The sample encompassed 3829 (47.1%) and 4302 (52.9%) foods from the North and the South, and 2285 (28.1%), 4162 (51.2%) and 1684 (20.7%) foods from large, medium and small restaurants, respectively. The main dish type was fried dish (83.9%), followed by cold dish (11.7%), soup (3.0%) and staples/snacks (1.4%).

Scourboutakos MJ, Murphy SA, L’Abbe MR. Association between salt substitutes/enhancers and changes in sodium levels in fast-food restaurants: a cross-sectional analysis. CMAJ Open. 2018;6:E118–25.
Commercially processed and restaurant foods are the main contributors for sodium intake in most high-income countries, e.g. the UK, USA [14, 24]. Although most sodium consumed in the Chinese population still mainly comes from salt and other salted condiments/seasonings added during cooking [6], there has been a rapid increase in the consumption of foods outside the home in the past decades. As such, reducing sodium in the out-of-home sector plays in increasingly important role for China to achieve the salt reduction targets by 2030. Zang J, Luo B, Wang Y, Zhu Z, Wang Z, He X, et al. Eating out-of-home in adult residents in Shanghai and the nutritional differences among dining places. Nutrients. 2018;10:951. Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, EC1M-6BQ, London, UKTaking into account both the high sodium level in restaurant dishes and the increasing popularity of eating out, restaurant dishes are becoming increasingly important contributors to sodium intake in China. However, data on the sodium content of restaurant dishes in China is limited. The current study describes the sodium density and sodium content per serving, as well as sources of sodium in 8131 popular restaurant dishes from six provinces in China. Our results show that both the average level of sodium per 100 g and sodium level per serving are extremely high in Chinese restaurant dishes, with significant variations by region, restaurant size and dish type. On average, a single serving of a restaurant dish provided almost 2.2 times the daily recommended AI for sodium for Chinese adults. Sodium levels per serving in 74.9 and 62.6% of restaurant dishes exceeded the Chinese daily recommended AI (1500 mg) and PI (2000 mg), respectively.

Our findings of the very high and wide-ranging sodium levels in restaurant dishes are in agreement with those reported in several other studies [25,26,27,28]. Such high sodium levels of restaurant foods are attributed to either large serving sizes or high sodium density, or the combination of both depending on dish type [25]. In our study, the higher sodium level per serving in restaurant dishes, in some instances, was mainly due to higher sodium density, such as in the South, in small restaurants, and in cold dishes, while in other instances, it was mainly due to larger serving sizes, such as in the North, in large restaurants, and in staples/snacks, or due to the combination of both serving size and sodium density, such as in medium restaurants, and in fried dishes and soups. These differences may imply that specific sodium reduction strategies for restaurant dishes are needed in different situations.Wyness LA, Butriss JL, Stanner SA. Reducing the population’s sodium intake: the UK food standards agency’s salt reduction programme. Public Health Nutr. 2012;15:254–61.

Does hoisin sauce have high sodium?
Traditional hoisin sauce is high in sodium. Cached
Xu A, Ma J, Guo X, Wang L, Wu J, Zhang J, et al. Association of a province-wide intervention with salt intake and hypertension in Shandong province, China, 2011-2016. JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180:877–86.Curtis CJ, Clapp J, Niederman SA, Ng SW, Angell SY. US food industry progress during the national salt reduction initiative: 2009-2014. Am J Public Health. 2016;106:1815–9.Du W, Zhang J, Li Y, He FJ, Zhou X, Xu Z, et al. Restaurant interventions for salt reduction in China: protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2020;10:e038744.

The authors would like to acknowledge the support of all the investigators, restaurants and staff involved in the Restaurant-based Intervention Study (RIS) from 6 provinces of China.

Widespread use of salted condiments/seasonings is another explanation for the high sodium content in restaurant dishes. In leading Canadian chain restaurants, more than 60% of the dishes contained a salt substitute/enhancer, such as yeast extracts, calcium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium chloride [19]. In our study, salted condiments/seasonings contributed to 82.9% of the sodium found in restaurant dishes (37.1% if excluding cooking salt). This makes sodium sources in Chinese restaurant dishes more complex and diversified. With increasing development of compound condiments/seasonings, restaurant chefs prefer to add several kinds of flavorings rather than cooking salt only. We observed that more than two thirds of the restaurant dishes contained three or four types of salted condiments/seasonings. Sodium density of the dishes increased as more types of condiments/seasonings were used due to most of these condiments being produced by the food industry, effective sodium reduction in restaurants will also require cooperation with food manufacturers [29, 30].
Overall, the restaurant dishes contained on average 487.3 (IQR: 291.1, 781.9) mg sodium per 100 g. Sodium levels varied significantly by area, restaurant size, and dish type (Table 1). The highest sodium densities (in mg per 100 g) were found in dishes from the South (566.3 mg per 100 g), in medium (497.5 mg per 100 g) and small (491.3 mg per 100 g) restaurants, and in soups (687.0 mg per 100 g), cold dishes (528.4 mg per 100 g) and fried dishes (480.9 mg per 100 g). Sodium density in mg per kcal showed similar trends, with an average of 3.4 (1.9, 6.4) mg of sodium per kcal. The dishes with the highest sodium density per kcal were from the South (3.6 mg), from medium (3.5 mg) and large (3.4 mg) restaurants, and in cold dishes (4.8 mg), soups (4.3 mg) and fried dishes (3.3 mg).The George Institute for Global Health at Peking University Health Science Center, Room 011, Unit 2, Tayuan Diplomatic Office Building No. 14 Liangmahe Nan Lu, Beijing, China

How do you cut the sodium in soy sauce?
The simplest way is to dilute the soy sauce with a bit of water. This makes it easier to taste the salt level before adding the soy sauce to the dish, giving you greater control over the result.
Median sodium content in restaurant dishes were 487.3 mg per 100 g, 3.4 mg per kcal, and 2543.7 mg per serving. For a single serving, 74.9% of the dishes exceeded the Chinese adults’ daily adequate intake for sodium (AI, 1500 mg per day), and 62.6% of dishes exceeded the proposed intake for preventing non-communicable chronic diseases (PI, 2000 mg per day). Cooking salt was the leading source of sodium in Chinese restaurant dishes (45.8%), followed by monosodium glutamate (17.5%), food ingredients (17.1%), soy sauce (9.4%), and other condiments/seasonings (10.2%). More types of salted condiments/seasonings use were related to higher sodium level.Anderson CA, Appel LJ, Okuda N, Brown IJ, Chan Q, Zhao L, et al. Dietary sources of sodium in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, women and men aged 40 to 59 years: the intermap study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:736–45.

Maalouf J, Cogswell ME, Gunn JP, Curtis CJ, Rhodes D, Hoy K, et al. Monitoring the sodium content of restaurant foods: public health challenges and opportunities. Am J Public Health. 2013;103:e21–30.
Table 2 shows serving size, sodium (mg) per serving, %AI, and proportions of restaurant dishes exceeding the daily sodium AI (1500 mg) and PI (2000 mg) by categories. The average serving size was 575.6 ± 318.0 g, providing 3331.2 ± 4156.9 mg sodium per serving, which represents 222.1% of the AI. Overall, 74.9% of the restaurant dishes exceeded Chinese adults’ daily sodium AI, and 62.6% of the dishes exceeded the adults’ PI. Dishes from the North, from large and medium restaurants, and belonging to the categories of fried dishes and soups had larger serving sizes and higher sodium levels (mg) per serving. In some instances, the higher sodium level per serving was mainly due to higher sodium density, such as in the South, in small restaurants and in cold dishes, while in other instances, it was due to larger serving sizes, such as in the North, in large restaurants, and in staples/snacks, or due to the combination of both serving size and sodium density, such as in medium restaurants, in fried dishes and soups.He Y, Li Y, Yang X, Hemler EC, Fang Y, Zhao L, et al. The dietary transition and its association with cardiometabolic mortality among Chinese adults, 1982-2012: a cross-sectional population-based study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019;7:540–8.

Webster J, Dunford E, Huxley R, Li N, Nowson CA, Neal B. The development of a national salt reduction strategy for Australia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18:303–9.
WWD contributed to the conceptualization of the study, analyzed and interpreted the data, and drafted the manuscript; HJW contributed to the study design and data interpretation; JGZ contributed to data collection and statistical analyses; XFZ and NW contributed to data collection and cleaning; YL and PHZ contributed to study design and data interpretation; MT contributed to language editing and manuscript modification; FJH acquired the funding and contributed to data interpretation. All authors provided comments on the draft manuscript and approved the final version.The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due to considerations of intellectual property. However, they may be available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Ahuja JKC, Li Y, Haytowitz DB, Bahadur R, Pehrsson PR, Cogswell ME. Assessing changes in sodium content of selected popular commercially processed and restaurant foods: results from the USDA: CDC sentinel foods surveillance program. Nutrients. 2019;11:1754. GBD 2017 Diet Collaborators. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017. Lancet. 2019;393:1958–72.A mobile-based electronic data collection system (EDC) developed by the Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics was used for data collection. The recipes were collected by in-depth interviews with chefs who were familiar with the preparation and cooking of the dishes. The detailed recipes included the following information: name of the dish, edible percentage, ingredients and condiments/seasonings used (with amounts), dish type and cooking method. To improve the accuracy of the estimated amount of condiments/seasonings used, the investigators showed the weighed amount using a usual spoon or other measuring instruments during the interview. Sodium content of each dish was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table, combining the sodium content of all ingredients and condiments/seasonings used for the dish. Sodium content is reported as sodium density (mg per 100 g, mg per kcal), as well as sodium (mg) per serving.

Zhang P, He FJ, Li Y, Li C, Wu J, Ma J, et al. Reducing salt intake in China with “action on salt China” (ASC): protocol for campaigns and randomized controlled trials. JMIR Res Protoc. 2020;9:e15933.
Quader ZS, Zhao L, Gillespie C, Cogswell ME, Terry AL, Moshfegh A, et al. Sodium intake among persons aged≥2 years – United States, 2013-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66:324–238.

In conclusion, our study shows that the sodium content of the majority of popular restaurant dishes in China are extremely high and variable. Further, the large number of restaurant dishes that exceeded the daily AI and PI in a single serving, along with the widespread use of salted condiments/seasonings, demonstrate the need for a Chinese sodium reduction strategy that addresses all the major sodium sources. Coordinated government-led efforts should be implemented, with the participation of restaurants, food manufacturers, and consumers to reduce sodium level in restaurant foods, raise sodium-reduction awareness and ultimately lower population sodium intake.
Based on the recipes, we classified the sources of sodium in restaurant dishes (according to the following categories: food ingredients, cooking salt, monosodium glutamate (including chicken powder and chicken essence), soy sauce, and other condiments/seasonings. We then estimated their respective contribution (in percentages) to sodium levels in dishes.Cross-sectional data were obtained from the baseline survey of the Restaurant-based Intervention Study (RIS) in 2019. A total of 8131 best-selling restaurant dishes with detailed recipes from 192 restaurants in China were included. Sodium content per 100 g and per serving were calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table. The proportion of restaurant dishes exceeding the daily sodium reference intake level in a single serving and the major sources of sodium were determined.

Many countries have implemented national or regional initiatives for sodium reduction in restaurants [9, 31,32,33,34,35], mainly including: menu labelling, setting sodium targets by food category, reformulation, raising consumer awareness, chef training, and promotional materials delivery. However, there are many potential barriers to reducing sodium content in restaurant dishes. The nutritional monitoring of restaurant dishes has shown that sodium levels continue to be high and the changes in sodium levels vary by food categories, with reductions only seen in a minority of the sampled foods [26, 27]. More effective sodium reduction strategies with multi-stakeholders’ cooperation are needed.
A national target of 20% reduction in salt intake by 2030 has been proposed in China’s health development agenda “Healthy China 2030” [13]. Determining local sodium intake levels and the main dietary contributors to sodium intake is critical to develop an effective sodium reduction strategy. In high-income countries, where the majority of the sodium consumed comes from processed foods, efforts focus on reducing the amount of salt added by the food industry, through setting incrementally lower salt targets for
specific food categories [14, 15]. In China, salt added when cooking/preparing food is the leading source of sodium (69.2% of sodium intake), followed by soy sauce (8.2%), processed foods (6.0%), and chicken essence (4.5%) [6]. However, the above findings were obtained from the national nutrition and health survey, which did not include salt and condiment use in foods consumed away from home, which may have resulted in an underestimate of the total sodium intake [16]. Restaurant dishes have a higher sodium level than home-made foods [16], thus eating out is reported to be associated with higher intake of sodium [17, 18]. Besides their high sodium content, restaurant foods also are characterized by the use of salt substitutes and flavor enhancers [19], indicating different sources of sodium compared with home-made dishes. With rapid urbanization and economic development, the contribution of restaurant foods to the population’s sodium intake is increasing [20]. To achieve the sodium reduction goals, considerable efforts should thus be taken to reduce the amount of sodium added to restaurant foods [21].Sometimes, the best substitutes are to simply make your own at home! Soy sauce is quite simple to make at home and if you want the closest replacement then this is the way to go. Bring water to a boil and whisk in all the ingredients. When the bouillon granules have dissolved completely, remove, and pour into an airtight container. Refrigerate for up to 1 month. Oyster sauce is best used as a substitute for soy sauce in dishes where you want a more complex flavor profile with a bit of sweetness. It also is a great choice for sauces that you want to be a bit thicker.Tamari is a Japanese-style sauce that is also made from fermented soybeans, which gives it a very close flavor to Chinese soy sauce. There are two main differences between tamari and soy sauce.Shoyu can be used in a 1:1 exchange for soy sauce in any recipe; however, you may want to add a dash of salt to balance out the sweetness and get a closer salty flavor profile to soy sauce.

If you need a liquid base, you can use fresh mushrooms to form a simple mushroom broth. Simply boil 1 cup of chopped mushrooms in about 1 cup of water.
A staple for centuries in Asian cuisine, soy sauce made its way into the hearts of people worldwide in the last century. It has even moved beyond just being a staple in Asian cuisine and made a name for itself as a great addition to marinades, especially to help tenderize meat.Overall, Worcestershire sauce is stronger than soy sauce. So it is best to begin with less and add more as needed. Start with half the amount the recipe calls for in soy sauce and then give it a taste. Add more, up to an even 1:1 exchange, as needed.

It offers the saltiness that soy sauce adds to many dishes, but also has a distinct flavor that some find to be quite fishy. If you commonly use fish sauce in your cooking or are wanting to add more complex flavors to your recipe, this is a good substitute for soy sauce.
Depending on what you are making, teriyaki sauce can be a tasty substitute for soy sauce. It won’t provide an exact flavor exchange, but if you don’t mind adding a bit of sweetness to your dish, then teriyaki sauce is great.Since mushrooms have a similar umami flavor, they can be a good soy sauce substitution in some recipes. There are a few different ways you can use mushrooms as a substitute.

You can also mix the miso paste with a little bit of water first. Once fully combined, you can then measure the liquid in a 1:1 exchange for soy sauce.
This won’t work in dishes where you need the liquid of the soy sauce, but if you are simply looking to elevate the salty and savory flavors this is an easy substitute.Liquid aminos are a complete protein source of amino acids. The protein in liquid aminos comes from soybeans, which provides them with a similar taste to soy sauce.

What is a substitute for 1 4 cup hoisin sauce?
To mimic hoisin, you’ll need 1 tablespoon of the spicy stuff plus the following: 1/4 cup soy sauce. 2 tablespoons molasses. 1 tablespoon peanut butter.
If you happen to have dried shiitake mushrooms on hand, then you can soak them in water to create another form of mushroom broth. This will work best for a soup or sauce that you just want to enhance the savory flavors.This is a substitute that only a few may already have in their pantry. If you happen to have a jar of this rich umami flavored seasoning – give it a try in place of soy sauce!

Coconut aminos are another liquid amino, except they come from the sap of coconut trees instead of soybeans. This makes them a great soy sauce substitute for anyone with allergies since they are both gluten-free and soy-free.
This makes tamari a great choice for those who need a gluten-free soy sauce. *as more brands started producing tamari, some have started to add wheat to their sauce; therefore, if you have a gluten sensitivity, always check the bottle before using.Miso paste is made from fermented soybeans, so it offers a similar flavor profile to soy sauce. The main difference is the consistency of the paste is quite different than the liquid of soy sauce.

If you want, you can begin by first sauteing them in a pan and then slowly add some water to the pan and simmer. Measure the broth in a 1:1 exchange for soy sauce in liquid-based recipes.
With so many uses in a home cook’s kitchen, running out of this simple condiment mid-recipe may leave you looking for a substitute. Luckily, there are plenty of tasty substitutes you can turn to. \Worcestershire sauce is more complex than soy sauce though, as it is made from several ingredients – including anchovies. Therefore, if you are vegan or vegetarian then you will want to avoid this option. This substitute won’t be for everyone, but if you enjoy the saltiness that anchovies offer to a dish then you can add a finely chopped anchovy to a dish in place of soy sauce.

You may be surprised to find that this sauce from across the pond is a good flavor substitute for soy sauce in most dishes. Worcestershire goes through a similar fermentation process which gives it a strong salty flavor profile like soy sauce.

What can I use instead of soy sauce for low sodium?
No matter your reasons, there are several alternatives on the market and substitute recipes to try.Coconut Secret coconut aminos sauce. … Red Boat fish sauce. … Maggi seasoning sauce. … Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce. … Ohsawa White Nama shoyu sauce. … Bragg Liquid Aminos.
Teriyaki sauce works best in stir-fry dishes, as a topping for rice bowls, or as a base for a marinade. It can be used in a simple 1:1 exchange for soy sauce.Oyster sauce can be used in a 1:1 substitution for soy sauce. However, since it is quite a bit sweeter you may want to start with less or add additional salt to get the saltiness missing from the soy sauce.In a lot of dishes, soy sauce is used to add saltiness. While salt on its own won’t offer the savory umami flavors of soy sauce, in a pinch – you can use a pinch of salt to enhance the flavor of the dish.