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MOTS‐C is a small hormone found in the mitochondria and is a peptide of 16 amino acids. MOTS-C is known to regulate metabolic functions throughout the body. One of the key factors of MOTS-C is turning glucose into usable energy which means it keeps fat from accumulating in the muscle. If you are struggling to lose weight, MOTS-C when injected can help boost glucose metabolism to control blood sugar levels. MOTS-C is an exercise mimetic medication that stimulates changes activated through exercise and can help improve overall healthier lifestyle. A 2018 study found that MOTS-c treatment could stimulate the formation of calcified nodules in the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) of rats afflicted with osteoporosis. The researchers found that MOTS-c administration upregulated the TGF-β/Smad pathway-related genes, leading to osteogenic differentiation and improvement of symptoms of osteoporosis .Based on our expert survey, Peptide Sciences is the top source of MOTS-c online. They ship high-purity MOTS-c to researchers at fair prices, around the globe.A 2015 study conducted on mice being administered a high-fat diet showed that MOTS-c prevented diet-induced obesity [3, 6]. Researchers have also found that increasing AMPK can affect the expression of genes associated with inflammation, which typically contributes to weight gain . Researchers looking to buy high-quality MOTS-c for their next study are advised to check out Peptide Sciences, an established leader of the research chemicals industry. Researchers have found that MOTS-c is important to promoting insulin sensitivity. MOTS-c treatment has been shown to prevent both diet-induced and age-dependent muscle insulin resistance in mice, acting as a regulator of metabolic homeostasis .
There may also be sex-based differences in how MOTS-c works. Compared to females, male subjects have been shown to exhibit a greater disruption in MOTS-c in contexts of metabolic disease. Researchers have proposed that the protective properties of estrogen may inhibit the decline of MOTS-c in premenopausal women .
MOTS-c (mitochondrial open-reading-frame of the twelve S rRNA-C) is a 16 amino acid peptide naturally produced in the human body and classified as a mitochondria-derived peptide (MDP).From peptide reconstitution and injection to proper storage, items like bacteriostatic water, sterile vials, and insulin syringes are necessary for proper completion.
This online vendor is the only source you need to stock up on the full range of essentials for peptide research. It is our first choice due to its convenient supply kits that efficiently supply all the requisite materials and eliminate the hassle of assembling the necessary products from multiple sites.
However, there is data on the safety profile of CB4211, a novel analog of MOTS-c. This mitochondria-based therapeutic has been evaluated for safety in a phase 1a/1b double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy adults, with the researchers finding it safe and well-tolerated [12, 13, 14].It has been found to play an important role in regulating metabolism and weight loss, improving athletic performance, and enhancing longevity . Above all, mitochondria-derived peptides like MOTS-c play a “cytoprotective role in maintaining mitochondrial function and cell viability under pressure” .
Disclaimer: Peptides.org contains information about products that are intended for laboratory and research use only, unless otherwise explicitly stated. This information, including any referenced scientific or clinical research, is made available for educational purposes only. Peptides.org makes every effort to ensure that any information it shares complies with national and international standards for clinical trial information and is committed to the timely disclosure of the design and results of all interventional clinical studies for innovative treatments publicly available or that may be made available. However, research is not considered conclusive. Peptides.org makes no claims that any products referenced can cure, treat or prevent any conditions, including any conditions referenced on its website or in print materials.
The peptide is sometimes referred to as an exercise‐mimetic, meaning it can imitate the mechanism of exercise on the body; exercise itself induces endogenous MOTS-c expression in both skeletal muscle and circulation in humans .
Due to increased interest in mitochondrial-derived peptides, researchers are now inquiring about how to establish an appropriate MOTS-c dosage for their next experiment.
MOTS-c is found in skeletal and muscle tissue, and in various organs such as the liver and brain. It helps to regulate metabolic functions in the body, including the conversion of glucose into usable energy. MOTS-c increases glucose uptake in muscle cells by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, without increasing insulin. AMPK is a key energy-sensing kinase and a master metabolic regulator that is triggered by metabolic stress [1, 3, 4].
Studies conducted on this peptide have indicated that it is safe and well-tolerated, and its analog CB4211 has recently completed a Phase 1a/1b clinical study
While peptide researchers certainly have options of where to buy MOTS-c online, it can also be challenging to determine which online vendors are legitimate sources of research-grade peptides. ResearchPeptides.org follows the strictest sourcing guidelines in the health and nootropics industry. Our focus is to exclusively link to peer-reviewed studies found on respected websites, like PubMed. We focus on finding the most accurate information from the scientific source. In this MOTS-c dosage calculator and guide, we cover what researchers may need to know about this peptide, including a reference dosing protocol and our recommendation on where to buy research-grade MOTS-c online.MOTS-c has been found to produce varied benefits in test subjects, including facilitating weight loss, improving longevity, and reducing insulin resistance.
Researchers should note that MOTS-c may be more effective in male subjects compared to female subjects, believed to be due to the influence of ovarian hormones like estrogen on MOTS-c based therapeutics.
Our team has placed orders with numerous peptide suppliers and are well aware of which companies meet standards of quality and service, and which do not.Myostatin is responsible for limiting the amount of skeletal muscle mass on the body. It also mediates insulin resistance-induced skeletal muscle wasting.There is limited human data on mitochondria-derived peptide MOTS-c, but it has been shown to promote outcomes like weight loss, greater insulin sensitivity, inhibited myostatin, and improved bone health in animal models. MOTS-c works by increasing the body’s usage of energy by targeting the skeletal muscle and enhancing glucose metabolism. In the skeletal muscle, the peptide’s cellular actions slow down the folate cycle and result in AMPK activation. In a 2012 human study, researchers investigated whether there was a rela
tionship between plasma MOTS-c levels and insulin sensitivity surrogates, in both lean and obese subjects. The researchers found that MOTS-c was positively associated with insulin sensitivity in the lean subject group, but not in the obese individuals .A 2021 study found an inverse correlation between plasma MOTS-c and myostatin levels in human subjects. The researchers observed that by elevating AKT phosphorylation, MOTS-c inhibits the activity of myostatin and other muscle wasting genes. They proposed MOTS-c as a potential treatment of insulin resistance-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and other muscle wasting conditions .Another 2016 study sought to evaluate whether MOTS-c could protect mice from osteoporosis after an ovariectomy. Following ovary removal, the rodents were injected with a MOTS-c dose of 5 mg/kg once daily for 12 weeks. The researchers found that MOTS-c administration greatly alleviated bone loss in the test subjects .Our content is continually monitored by an internal peer-review process to ensure accuracy. We strive to never have a piece of inaccurate information on this website.To the extent that Peptides.org references a product that is also a prescription medication, Peptides.org does not does not offer medical diagnosis or treatment advice. The contents of Peptides.org are intended exclusively for qualified researchers. Any individual seeking any advice on any prescription medication, or any disease or condition, is advised to refrain from using this site and consult their healthcare provider. Statements regarding products presented on Peptides.org are the opinions of the individuals making them and are not necessarily the same as those of Peptides.org.Because it can be challenging to find a single trusted retailer for all your research supplies, we at Peptides.org have surveyed the market to give you our top recommendation.
This is the most exciting part! MOTS-C is one of those peptides with a wide array of systemic benefits. The peptide assists in numerous body functions with minimal to no side effects.
Unlike several other peptides, Mots-c doesn’t work by inducing the release of growth hormone. Instead, it works by enhancing glucose metabolism via various pathways. With an improved glucose metabolism, the body can produce more significant amounts of energy, allowing different ways to function smoothly.
For mots-c, it is recommended to use 10 mg of it subcutaneously once a week. As far as cycling is concerned, you can run the peptide for four weeks straight!
One of the prime functions of Mots-c is to increase insulin sensitivity manifolds, particularly in the skeletal muscles. They do so by enhancing the AMPK pathway (4). This allows the body to use more storage biomolecules and increase energy expenditure to run other metabolic pathways.Research trials also suggest a rather protective action of Mots-c in mitochondrial health. The peptide can help protect mitochondrial DNA against free radicals and oxidative stresses.
Due to its ability to enhance insulin sensitivity and energy production, one can use Mots-c to optimize exercise regimens. The peptide can increase endurance and energy levels for cardio exercises.
This one is quite a new combination of peptide stack. CJC 1295 and Ipamorelin work via increasing growth hormone production from the anterior pituitary gland. This, in turn, facilitates the burning of fat and protein production and, like Mots-c, stabilizes insulin function.
“I’m using MOTS-C currently. I’m doing 5mg three times a week. It appears beneficial, but it’s hard to attribute my results to MOTS-C specifically because I’m also just training a ton on TRT and CJC1295/ipamorelin.
YES! Mots-c works quite well when optimum exercise is concerned. Studies propose that subjects treated with Mots-c could run faster than the non-treated ones.“The typical protocol for MOTS-c is 10mg 3X weekly for four weeks, then 10mg weekly for four weeks. I also use 5mg instead of the 10mg dosing with good results. When it comes to mitochondrial dysfunction, this peptide is great. I have used it personally without much result, but I’m a conditioned athlete who exercises 2-3 hours daily. I find that this is a great adjunct to treatment in my patients with any mitochondrial dysfunction.”
Kartik is a medical student with a passion for anatomy and physiology. He writes research papers, articles and blogs to raise awareness and also has a strong interest in teaching and public speaking. Aspiring to be a successful cardiologist, Kartik believes in connecting with people on a personal level and is an expert in peptides.
Besides this, it is believed that low MOTS-c can cause endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, rats supplemented with MOTS-c peptide improved endothelial and epicardial blood vasculature, leading to advanced heart functions (6).This is where mots-c comes into play. Okay, before going ahead, let me first explain to you what functional metabolism is. Available metabolism consists of proper intake and utilization of glucose reservoirs and optimal insulin function alongside well-functioning mitochondria.
Stacking peptides is one of the best ways to enjoy synergistic effects in one go with maximal optimization. While Mots-c is not popularly stacked, there are still some experiences and studies that could be helpful for us to understand the stacking of Mots-c.With new research popping up every day on different peptides, we now have a peptide in the market that works to revamp your metabolism in such a way that leads to stronger stamina and enhanced athletic activity.
Mots-c is one of those peptides that rarely cause any major side effects. The peptide is believed to be very safe for human consumption; however, limited research trials have been performed so far involving human subjects. Therefore, you may need to be pretty careful before deciding to use Mots-c.If you are an athlete or into fitness, I am pretty sure that you must have at least once tried to look for a peptide that could optimize your exercise regimens in the most natural way by working at the micro level rather than macro level.
Research also reports that Mots-c can help increase glucose clearance instead of lowering its production inside the liver. It is seen to reduce non-fasting glucose levels and improve glucose tolerance tests. Besides this, mots-c is known to increase bone cell differentiation and alleviate osteoporosis symptoms. However, the exact mechanism is unknown!
Like other peptides, Mots-c is unfortunately not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is strictly forbidden to use Mots-c for human consumption.Warning: The content on Muscleandbrawn.com and the information included in this article is intended for entertainment and informational purposes only. It is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Prior to buying anything, check that it is compliant where you live with your current government laws. We frequently mention research chemicals that are not made for human consumption. Therefore, before purchasing any product for personal use, consult with your doctor or healthcare provider first.
Lastly, its cell differentiation ability can help cease excessive inflammation and osteoporosis of bones. This is one of the ways of slowing down the aging process (7).
It is now becoming a standard regimen to stack Mots-c with IGF1-LR3 and PEG MGF and use it as a monotherapy. IGF1-LR3 increases fatty acid oxidation and enhances muscle repair by inhibiting myostatin. Additionally, you can supplement with PEG-MGF due to similar effects.Metabolic dysfunction, such as surplus food intake with no physical activity, can lead to diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (3). It is also reported that excess food can cause mitochondrial dysfunction in specific ways. Detailed studies and thorough analysis confirm that mots-c helps regulate several metabolic pathways in energy production. The peptide assists in weight regulation, exercise, longevity, and glucose metabolism (2). For this monotherapy to be effective, it is fundamental to increase 25-75 mcg per day for six weeks; for Mots-c, use 10 mg thrice a week for six weeks.Mots-c enhances AMPK pathway, thereby increasing insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. This enhances energy expenditure that can be used to run other metabolic pathways.
While most of the existing peptides available in the market trigger the release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland, Mots-c is pretty unique in its mechanism of action and this is a peptide that we are talking about today.Although there is pretty limited research available involving humans as subjects, it shows promising results in all other clinical trials ever conducted. Due to its positive impact on insulin sensitivity, it is hypothesized that mots-c can also be used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2. MOTS-c is commonly used for weight loss. Mots-c increases the use of energy reservoirs such as glucose and fatty acids. This, in turn, reduces fatty tissue for energy production and expenditure (5). Mots-c is definitely one of the legit peptides available in the market. The peptide, with its beneficial effects such as enhanced exercise tolerance, functional metabolism, weight loss, and prevention of osteoporosis, makes mots-c one of the effective therapeutic peptides.
“…in skeletal muscle the MOTS-c levels significantly increased by 11.9 times after exercise, and although they trended back towards the baseline over time, levels were still higher than previously even after the four-hour rest. MOTS-c in plasma was also elevated by 50 percent after exercise, and dropped to baseline faster.”
…To test the effects of MOTS-c, the team injected the hormone into mice fed a high-fat diet, which typically causes them to grow obese and develop a resistance to insulin. The injections not only suppressed both effects in mice, they also reversed age-dependent insulin-resistance, a condition that precedes diabetes.”
So the idea is quite straightforward: Inject the MOTS-C peptide into your body and you can stimulate the positive changes induced by vigorous exercise!Unlike 99% of vendors in existence, all peptides are independently tested by a third-party analytical laboratory before they are made available for purchase And while I cannot confirm this 100%, some MOTS-C users are claiming that the peptide degrades very rapidly upon being constituted due to its high level of instability (50% at 2 hours and 90% at 3 hours, according to one Reddit user). “In animal models of obesity and diabetes, researchers have found that certain metabolic pathways are overactivated. These include the breakdown of fats and energy sources other than glucose. The detection of products and by-products of this breakdown serve as clues that normal, healthy metabolism has gone astray.
Dr. William Seeds in his book Peptide Protocols, Volume 1: 5 mg of MOTS-C injected subcutaneously 3 times per week on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday schedule for 4-6 weeks, followed by a once-a-week dose of 5 mg for 4 weeks.MOTS-C has also been studied for other benefits related to longevity and lifespan, although not to the same extent as the health benefits previously described.
Dr. Rob Kominiarek: 10 mg of MOTS-C injected subcutaneously into the abdomen once a week for 4 weeks straight, followed by a second 4-week cycle within a 12 month period.
MOTS-C (mitochondrial open-reading-frame of the twelve S rRNA-C) is a 16-amino-acid peptide that is naturally produced in your body by the mitochondria in your cells.
Reduced fat accumulation may be a result of robust carbohydrate usage that reduces fatty acid synthesis, but the possible involvement of increased fatty acid oxidation, as observed in vitro, would need detailed examination before being ruled out”“Mitochondrial biogenesis is the process by which cells increase mitochondrial mass [i.e. the division and growth of mitochondria that already exist]. It was first described by John Holloszy in the 1960s, when it was discovered that physical endurance training induced higher mitochondrial content levels, leading to greater glucose uptake by muscles”
Believe it or not, mitochondria have their OWN DNA, and within the “mitochondrial DNA” (mtDNA) are short open reading frames (sORFs) that can be used to encode and produce peptides. “…the team next investigated the hypothesis that exercise triggers the release of MOTS-c, and that the hormone itself is responsible for some of the physical benefits associated with exercise. The team had 10 healthy (but sedentary) male human volunteers, aged in their 20s, exercise on a stationary bike, then rest for four hours. The researchers took samples of their skeletal muscle and plasma before, during and after the exercise, and after the rest, to measure levels of MOTS-c. Hepatic lipid accumulation was dramatically reduced in HFD-fed mice treated with MOTS-c . Notably, MOTS-c promoted AMPK activation and GLUT4 expression in the skeletal muscles of HFD-fed mice When you inject this peptide into your body, there are numerous benefits you can expect to experience: Increased energy levels, greater fat loss, a longer lifespan, protection against age-related diseases, and so much more.Moreover, the fact that MOTS-C targets the skeletal muscle while enhancing the metabolism of glucose explains why it may be so helpful for treating aging-related diseases: But I do feel they are important to highlight as the peptide is still being studied to this day, so here is where the “science” stands as of this writing: One testimonial on Reddit was especially captivating, as the user claimed it was the peptide alone that allowed him to achieve significant weight loss:We are nowhere near the point where all of the benefits of physical activity can be jam-packed into a single pharmaceutical drug, although many people are trying to achieve this state of zero-effort utopia:In fact, some researchers speculate that a specific genetic alternation within MOTS-C explains why Japan has a much higher average lifespan compared to the rest of the world
“Because peptide therapy is used in conjunction with lifestyle and diet changes, we typically expect patients to notice a difference in their shape or weight between 4 weeks to 3 months of beginning their program.
In a Cell Metabolism review of several studies, a few interesting observations were made about mice who were treated with the MOTS-C peptide and fed a variety of diets:I’ve compiled all of the available information about the MOTS-C peptide into this article, which was not a difficult feat considering how little information is available.
“Although MOTS-c treatment had no effect on body weight in mice fed a normal diet, it remarkably prevented obesity when administrated to mice fed a high-fat diet [HDF]. This difference in body weight was not attributed to food intake, as caloric intake was identical between the groups.If you want to dive deeper into the science of how this all works, here’s an educational YouTube video that shows exactly how metabolic dysfunction in obese mice can be fixed with MOTS-C: “The capacity for mitochondrial biogenesis has been shown to decrease with age, and such decreased mitochondrial function has been associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Aging and disease can induce changes in the expression levels of proteins involved in the fission and fusion mechanisms of mitochondria, thus creating dysfunctional mitochondria.” “Among long‐lived individuals, those who reach exceptional longevity (EL, i.e., centenarians (≥100 years) and supercentenarians (SCs, ≥110 years)) are arguably the paradigm of successful aging… Japan has clearly the longest life expectancy in the world, as well as the highest number of SCs, as we recently reviewed.”
They could also confer the health benefits of exercise on healthy people who can’t fit physical activity into their schedules or just don’t want to get off the couch.”
Then again, the MOTS-C peptide has yet to be clinically studied in human subjects (as you saw earlier, all of the available studies are done on either mice or cell cultures).“…These studies suggest that MOTS-c prevents HFD-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure, including heat production, and improving glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity.
“Considering that mitochondria are the single most important metabolic organelle, it is not surprising that these MDPs have metabolic actions. MOTS-c has been shown to target the skeletal muscle and enhance glucose metabolism.
MOTS-C goes far beyond being a mere “exercise mimetic” – with just over 55 studies published on PubMed between 2015 and 2021, there’s been a growing amount of interest in discovering its other anti-aging properties.In all age groups, the treated mice performed significantly better than controls in tests on a rotating rod and a treadmill. Intriguingly, the elderly mice appeared rejuvenated by the treatment, improving their grip strength, gait and walking abilities”The researchers injected MOTS-c into mice of three different ages – two-month-old young mice, 12-month-old middle-aged mice, and 22-month-old elderly mice – for two weeks, then had them perform physical challenges.
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“In a follow-up experiment, the team investigated how the MOTS-c treatment affected mice under metabolic stress. Mice were fed a high-fat diet then treated with MOTS-c twice a day, at different dosages. After seven days of treatment, the animals had improved insulin sensitivity, which lessens their risk of diabetes. The animals also gained less weight on the high-fat diet than untreated mice.As such, MOTS-c has implications in the regulation of obesity, diabetes, exercise, and longevity, representing an entirely novel mitochondrial signaling mechanism to regulate metabolism within and between cells”
For more information, I highly recommend reading two articles I’ve previously written on the importance of insulin sensitivity for improved body composition and better health. Roughly I dropped from 18% body fat to 15% by day 15, if I’m to trust my scale (not the best way to measure fat loss) No changes in diet or duration and intensity of exercise. According to a systematic review published in 2020 about the role of mitochondrial-derived peptides in age-related diseases, your body’s MOTS-C levels tend to gradually decline over time:
“In addition, MOTS-c can stimulate your mitochondria… [via] gene expression to increase their production. All this results in more ATP production, which equates to more energy and less fatigue. Moreover, if you can boost your energy productions as you age, you may have a more active life and potentially live longer too”
One of the most talked-about benefits of MOTS-C amongst peptide experts is its ability to increase your energy levels, especially for endurance during cardiovascular exercise.
This brand-new study from the University of Southern California was literally released YESTERDAY and shows how powerful MOTS-C can be in increasing your body’s capacity for maximum physical performance.
Ben Greenfield in his book Boundless: 10 mg of MOTS-C injected once a week, ideally right before endurance exercise for the added mitochondrial benefit, can be repeated for up to 10 weeks in a row every year
Especially considering that the older mice treated with MOTS-C were able to outrun the untreated middle-aged mice, effectively doubling their running capacity.
While there’s a lot more to this mechanism with respect to intricate details about each and every step of the cascade reaction, this is all you need to know about how MOTS-C works in the body.
Being a peptide derived from the mitochondria, MOTS-c works to restore homeostasis with no side effects. During your consultation, your provider will briefly review your medical history, goals, and current medications and supplements to ensure your accelerated fitness program is developed safely and successfully.”
Hormones are molecules that act as the body’s signals, triggering various physiological responses. The newly discovered hormone, dubbed “MOTS-c,” primarily targets muscle tissue, where it restores insulin sensitivity, counteracting diet-induced and age-dependent insulin resistance.
That vendor’s name is Limitless Life Nootropics and you can reliably source MOTS-C from them, along with any other peptide or nootropic available in their store.
“Scientists at the USC Leonard Davis School of Gerontology have discovered a new hormone that fights the weight gain caused by a high-fat Western diet and normalizes the metabolism – effects commonly associated with exercising.Collectively, the results indicate that MOTS-c improves the efficiency with which mice can process glucose. That has positive implications for keeping fat from accumulating in muscle and for maintaining an overall healthier lifestyle.”
“In essence, you are simply using MOTS-c, which is actually produced by the mitochondria’s own DNA, to protect the mitochondria from age-related degradation. The result is that you get a boost of energy production from your own mitochondrial powerhouses.”After 10 days, mice on the higher dose of MOTS-c were running further and burning more energy than untreated ones. In fact, 100 percent of the higher-dose mice were able to complete the final treadmill test – sprinting 23 m (75 ft) per minute – whereas only 16.6 percent of mice in the lower dose and control groups managed the feat.”“MOTS-c levels also decrease with age in humans. In middle-aged (45–55 years) and old-aged (70–81) individuals, circulating MOTS-c levels were 11% and 21% lower compared with those in younger individuals (18–30 years), respectively”“The decline of MOTS-c levels during aging and the correlation between MOTS-c levels and pathological conditions suggest that higher MOTS-c levels may protect against age-related diseases. Indeed, MOTS-c administration to mice provides beneficial effects in multiple pathological conditions such as insulin resistance, ovariectomy-induced metabolic dysfunction, and bone loss.”