Yamuna River City

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Flood forecasting systems are established at Poanta Sahib, where Tons, Pawar and Giri tributaries meet. The river take 60 hours to travel from Tajewala to Delhi, thus allowing a two-day advance flood warning period. The Central Water Commission started flood-forecasting services in 1958 with its first forecasting station on Yamuna at Delhi Railway Bridge.Yamuna is mentioned as Iomanes (Ioames) in the surveys of Seleucus I Nicator, an officer of Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi, who visited India in 305 BCE. Greek traveller and geographer Megasthenes visited India sometime before 288 BCE (the date of Chandragupta’s death) and mentioned the river in his Indica, where he described the region around it as the land of Surasena. In Mahabharata, the Pandava capital of Indraprastha was situated on the banks of Yamuna, considered to be the site of modern Delhi.

Which city is most polluted by Yamuna River?
Delhi Only 2% of the river length flows through Delhi between Wazirabad and Okhla yet the city contributes about 76% of the total pollution load in the river. Sewage and industrial effluent is discharged into Delhi’s drainage system.
The Yamuna from the source to its culmination in Ganges is a habitat for fish for approximately 1,400 km (870 mi) stretch and supports a rich diversity of species. Fish from the family Cyprinidae dominate the variety of fish species found in the river. This includes Indian carp and also invasive species from the family. In a study, 93 species of fish were found in the river including catfish. Species of non-native Tilapia have become established in the river. They have been implicated in the decline of the Ghariyal (Indian crocodile) population in the river. Large turtles used to be a common sight on the river a few decades ago but they have mostly disappeared.

As the Yamuna enters the Northern Plains near Dakpathar at an elevation of 790 metres (2,590 ft), the Eastern Yamuna Canal commences at the Dakpathar Barrage and pauses at the Asan and Hathnikund Barrages before continuing south.
Yamuna is one of the National Waterways of India, designated as NW110 in Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh. Some of its sections are being developed for navigation:In her human form, Yamuna is the daughter of Surya, the sun god, and his wife Saranyu. She is the twin sister of Yama, the god of death, and is also known as Yami. The Agni Purana describes Yamuna as having a dark complexion, mounted on a turtle, and holding a pot in her hand.Yamuna has the following six functional barrages (eight including old replaced barrages, nine including a new proposed barrage), from north-west to southeast:Under the YAP- III scheme, a new sewage treatment plant is being built at the largest such facility in India by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). The plant is predicted to be able to treat 124 million gallons of wastewater per day, amounting to a daily removal of 41,200 kg (90,800 lb) of organic pollutants as well as 61,600 kg (135,800 lb) of solids.

The main canal is 86 kilometres (53 mi) long. When including its branches and many major and minor irrigation channels, it has a total length of 325 km (202 mi) The WYC begins at the Hathni Kund Barrage about 38 km (24 mi) from Dakpathar and south of Doon Valley. The canals irrigate vast tracts of land in the region in Ambala, Karnal, Sonipat, Rohtak, Jind, Hisar and Bhiwani districts.A proposed heavy freight canal, the Sutlej–Yamuna Link (SYL), is being built westwards from near Yamuna’s headwaters through the Punjab region near an ancient caravan route and highlands pass to the navigable parts of the Sutlej–Indus watershed. This will connect the Ganges, which flows to the east coast of the subcontinent, with points west (via Pakistan). When completed, the SYL will allow shipping from India’s east coast to the west coast and the Arabian sea, shortening important commercial links for north-central India’s large population. The canal starts near Delhi, and is designed to transfer Haryana’s share of 4.3 km (3,500,000 acre⋅ft) from the Indus Basin.

The High Court in the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand ordered in March 2017 that the Ganges and its main tributary, the Yamuna, be assigned the status of legal entities, making the rivers “legal and living entities having the status of a legal person with all corresponding rights, duties and liabilities”. This decision meant that polluting or damaging the rivers is equivalent to harming a person. The court cited the example of the New Zealand Whanganui River, which was also declared to possess full rights of a legal person.
Yamuna, as a river and goddess, has a close association with Krishna. The Puranas narrate many stories about Krishna in relation to the river and its surroundings. One such story is of Kaliya Daman, the subduing of Kaliya, a Nāga which had inhabited the river and terrorised the people of Braja. Due to Krishna’s connection with the River and the Braja region, the Yamuna River is a center of pilgrimage for his devotees. In the Pushti Marga, founded by Vallabhacharya and in which Krishna is the main deity, Yamuna is worshipped as a goddess.On 25 April 2014, the National Green Tribunal Act (NGA) recommended the government to declare a 52-kilometre (32 mi) stretch of the Yamuna in Delhi and Uttar Pradesh as a conservation zone. A report prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) panel was submitted to the NGA on the same day.Like the Ganges, the Yamuna is highly venerated in Hinduism and worshipped as the goddess Yamuna. She is the daughter of the sun god, Surya, and the sister of Yama, the god of death, and so she is also known as Yami. According to popular Hindu legends, bathing in Yamuna’s sacred waters frees one from the torments of death.

Use of the Yamuna’s waters for irrigation in the Indo-Gangetic Plains is enhanced by its many canals, some dating to the 14th century Tughlaq dynasty, which built the Nahr-i-Bahisht (Paradise) parallel to the river. The Nahr-i-Bahisht was restored and extended by the Mughals in the first half of the 17th century, by engineer Ali Mardan Khan, starting from Benawas where the river enters the plains and terminating near the Mughal capital of Shahjahanabad, the present city of Delhi.
The Yamunashtakam is a 16th-century Sanskrit hymn composed by Vallabhacharya which describes the story of Yamuna’s descent to meet her beloved Krishna and to purify the world. The hymn also praises her for being the source of all spiritual abilities. And while the Ganges is considered an epitome of asceticism and higher knowledge and can grant Moksha or liberation, it is Yamuna, who, being a holder of infinite love and compassion, can grant freedom, even from death, the realm of her elder brother. Vallabhacharya writes that she rushes down the Kalinda Mountain, and describes her as the daughter of Kalinda, giving her the name Kalindi, the backdrop of Krishna Leela. The text also talks about her water being the colour of Lord Krishna, which is dark (Shyam). The river is referred to as Asita in some historical texts.In 1909, the waters of the Yamuna were distinguishable as clear blue, when compared to the silt-laden yellow of the Ganges. However, due to high-density population growth and fast industrialisation, Yamuna has become one of the most polluted rivers in the world. The Yamuna is particularly polluted downstream of New Delhi, the capital of India, which dumps about 58% of its waste into the river. A 2016 study shows that there is 100% urban metabolism of River Yamuna as it passes through the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi. The most pollution comes from Wazirabad, from where Yamuna enters Delhi.

Nearly 57 million people depend on the Yamuna’s waters, and the river accounts for more than 70 percent of Delhi’s water supply. It has an annual flow of 97 billion cubic metres, and nearly 4 billion cubic metres are consumed every year (of which irrigation constitutes 96%). At the Hathni Kund Barrage, its waters are diverted into two large canals: the Western Yamuna Canal flowing towards Haryana and the Eastern Yamuna Canal towards Uttar Pradesh. Beyond that point the Yamuna is joined by the Somb, a seasonal rivulet from Haryana, and by the highly polluted Hindon River near Noida, by Najafgarh drain near Wazirabad and by various other drains, so that it continues only as a trickling sewage-bearing drain before joining the Chambal at Pachnada in the Etawah District of Uttar Pradesh.The present Sarsuti river which originates in the Shivalik hills in Himachal and Haryana border and merges with Ghaggar River near Pehowa is the palaeochannel of Yamuna. Yamuna changed its course to the east due to a shift in the slope of the earth’s crust caused by plate tectonics.

The river crosses several states such as Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Delhi. It also meets several tributaries along the way, including Tons, Chambal, its longest tributary which has its own large basin, followed by Sindh, the Betwa, and Ken. From Uttarakhand, the river flows into the state of Himachal Pradesh. After passing Paonta Sahib, Yamuna flows along the boundary of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and after exiting Haryana it continues to flow till it merges with the river Ganges at Sangam or Prayag in Allahbad (Uttar Pradesh). It helps create the highly fertile alluvial Ganges-Yamuna Doab region between itself and the Ganges in the Indo-Gangetic plain.
The name Yamuna seems to be derived from the Sanskrit word “yama”, meaning ‘twin’, and it may have been applied to the river because it runs parallel to the Ganges.The Yamuna defines the state borders between Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, and between Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh. When the Yamuna reaches the Indo-Gangetic plain, it runs almost parallel to the Ganges, the two rivers creating the Ganges-Yamuna Doab region. Spread across 69,000 square kilometres (27,000 sq mi), one-third of the alluvial plain, the region is known for its agricultural output, particularly for the cultivation of basmati rice. The plain’s agriculture supports one-third of India’s population.Geological evidence indicates that in the distant past the Yamuna was a tributary of the Ghaggar River (identified by some as the Vedic Sarasvati River). It later changed its course eastward, becoming a tributary of the Ganges. While some have argued that this was due to a tectonic event, and may have led to the Sarasvati River drying up, the end of many Harappan civilisation settlements, and creation of the Thar desert, recent geological research suggests that the diversion of the Yamuna to the Ganges may have occurred during the Pleistocene, and thus could not be connected to the decline of the Harappan civilisation in the region.Subsequently, the Yamuna flows through the states of Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh before merging with the Ganges at a sacred spot known as Triveni Sangam in Allahabad. Pilgrims travel by boats to platforms erected in midstream to offer prayers. During the Kumbh Mela, held every 12 years, large congregations of people immerse themselves in the sacred waters of the confluence. The cities of Baghpat, Delhi, Noida, Mathura, Agra, Firozabad, Etawah, Kalpi, Hamirpur, and Allahabad lie on its banks. At Etawah, it meets it another important tributary, Chambal, followed by a host of tributaries further down, including, Sindh, the Betwa, and Ken.

The river flows southwards for about 200 kilometres (120 mi), through the Lower Himalayas and the Shivalik Hills Range. Morainic deposits are found along the steep Upper Yamuna, highlighted with geomorphic features such as interlocking spurs, steep rock benches, gorges and stream terraces. Large terraces formed over a long period of time can be seen in the lower course of the river, such as those near Naugoan. An important part of its early catchment area, totalling 2,320 square kilometres (900 sq mi), lies in Himachal Pradesh. The Tons, Yamuna’s largest tributary, drains a large portion of the upper catchment area and holds more water than the main stream. It rises from the Hari-ki-dun valley and merges after Kalsi near Dehradun. The drainage system of the river stretches between Giri-Sutlej catchment in Himachal and Yamuna-Bhilangna catchment in Garhwal, also draining the ridge of Shimla. Kalanag (6,387 metres [20,955 ft]) is the highest point of the Yamuna basin. Other tributaries in the region are the Giri, Rishi Ganga Kunta, Hanuman Ganga and Bata, which drain the upper catchment area of the Yamuna basin.
Like the Ganges, the Yamuna River is highly venerated in Hinduism in the form of a river and as the goddess Yamuna. The Yamuna is considered a river of heaven. The Rig Veda includes the Yamuna River as one of the seven sacred rivers, along with the Ganges. According to Hindu mythology, the River was brought to Earth by the ascetic practice of the Seven Sages where she first descended on Mount Kalinda. Therefore, Yamuna is also known as Kalindi.

The Padma Purana describes Yamuna’s purifying properties and states that her waters cleanse the mind from sin. It also mentions that bathing in her sacred waters frees one from the torments of death. Art from the Gupta period depict Yamuna and Ganga on the entrances and doorjambs of temples and sacred places. Upon passing through these doors, visitors were symbolically purified by these rivers.

The stretch of the river from its origin at Yamunotri to Okhla barrage in Delhi is called “Upper Yamuna”. A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed amongst the five basin states (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Delhi) on 12 May 1994 for sharing of its waters. This led to the formation of the Upper Yamuna River Board under India’s Ministry of Water Resources, whose primary functions are: regulation of the available flows amongst the beneficiary states and monitoring the return flows; monitoring conservation and upgrading the quality of surface and groundwater; maintaining hydro-meteorological data for the basin; overviewing plans for watershed management; and monitoring and reviewing the progress of all projects up to and including Okhla barrage.
To address river pollution, measures have been taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) in 12 towns of Haryana, 8 towns of Uttar Pradesh, and Delhi, under the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) which has been implemented since 1993 by the MoEF’s National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD). The Japan Bank for International Cooperation is participating in the YAP in 15 of the towns (excluding 6 towns of Haryana included later on the direction of the Supreme Court of India) with soft loan assistance of 17.773 billion Japanese yen (equivalent to about ₹700 crore [7 billion rupees]) while the government of India is providing the funds for the remaining 6 towns. In 2007, the Indian government’s plans to repair sewage lines were predicted to improve the water quality of the river 90% by 2010.In August 2009, the Delhi Jal Board (DJB) initiated its plan for resuscitating the Yamuna’s 22-kilometre (14 mi) stretch in Delhi by constructing interceptor sewers, at the cost of about ₹1,800 crore (18 billion rupees).The Yamuna (Hindustani: pronounced [jəmunaː]) is the second-largest tributary river of the Ganges by discharge and the longest tributary in India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of about 4,500 m (14,800 ft) on the southwestern slopes of Bandarpunch peaks of the Lower Himalaya in Uttarakhand, it travels a total length of 1,376 kilometres (855 mi) and has a drainage system of 366,223 square kilometres (141,399 sq mi), 40.2% of the entire Ganges Basin. It merges with the Ganges at Triveni Sangam, Allahabad, which is a site of the Kumbh Mela, a Hindu festival held every 12 years. The water quality in Upper Yamuna, as the 375-kilometre (233 mi) long stretch of Yamuna is called from its origin at Yamunotri to Okhla barrage, is of “reasonably good quality” until the Wazirabad barrage in Delhi. Below this, the discharge of wastewater in Delhi through 15 drains between Wazirabad barrage and Okhla barrage renders the river severely polluted. Wazirabad barrage to Okhla Barrage, 22 km (14 mi) stretch of Yamuna in Delhi, is less than 2% of Yamuna’s total length but accounts for nearly 80% of the total pollution in the river. Untreated wastewater and poor quality of water discharged from the wastewater treatment plants are the major reasons of Yamuna’s pollution in Delhi. To address river pollution, measures have been taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) under the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) which has been implemented since 1993 by the MoEF’s National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD). The source of Yamuna lies in the Yamunotri Glacier at an elevation of 6,387 metres (20,955 ft), on the southwestern slopes of Banderpooch peaks, which lie in the Mussoorie range of the Lower Himalayas, north of Haridwar in Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand. Yamunotri temple, a shrine dedicated to the goddess Yamuna, is one of the holiest shrines in Hinduism, and part of the Chota Char Dham Yatra circuit. Also standing close to the temple, on its 13-kilometre (8 mi) trek route that follows the right bank of the river, lies Markendeya Tirtha, where the sage Markandeya wrote the Markandeya Purana.

From the upper catchment area, the river descends onto the plains of Doon Valley, at Dak Pathar near Dehradun. Flowing through the Dakpathar Barrage, the water is diverted into a canal for power generation. Further downstream, the Assan River joins the Yamuna at the Asan Barrage, which hosts a bird sanctuary. After passing the Sikh pilgrimage town of Paonta Sahib, the Yamuna reaches Tajewala in Yamuna Nagar district (named after the river) of Haryana. A dam built here in 1873 is the origin of two important canals, the Western and Eastern Yamuna Canals, which irrigate the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The Western Yamuna Canal (WYC) crosses Yamuna Nagar, Karnal, Panipat and Sonipat before reaching the Haiderpur treatment plant, which contributes to Delhi’s municipal water supply. The Yamuna receives wastewater from Yamuna Nagar and Panipat cities; beyond this it is replenished by seasonal streams and groundwater accrual. During the dry season, the Yamuna remains dry in many stretches between the Tajewala dam and Delhi, where it enters near the Palla barrage after traversing 224 kilometres (139 mi).Below are all the known answers to City of 16+ million straddling the Yamuna River crossword clue for today’s daily grid. The most recent answer is shown at the top. Some clues may have more than one answer shown below, and that’s because the same clue can be used in multiple puzzles over time. We recommend double-checking the letter count to make sure it fits in today’s grid.

What are the major cities located on Ganga river?
VaranasiHaridwarPrayagrajKolkataPatnaKanpur Ganges/Cities
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Is Yamuna River in Delhi?
The catchment of the Yamuna river system covers parts of the states of Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and the entire state of Delhi.
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Sadhus and pilgrims from various sects, many of whom arrive barefoot, await their turn after welcoming the 13 sadhu akharas who bathe first. These sadhus, scantily clad and often smeared with ashes, arrive in a procession with banners, flags, elephants, horses and musicians. This holy event, called the shahi snan or rajyogi snan, opens up the event for other devotees and pilgrims who can then take a dip in the Ganga. These sacred baths usually happen on the days of the amavasya (new moon, which is the most auspicious) and the purnima (full moon).Suddenly, springing onto Kaliya’s head, Krishna, bearing the weight of the whole universe, started beating him with his feet. Kaliya started throwing up blood and began to show signs of collapsing. At that moment, Kaliya’s wives appeared and prayed to Krishna with joined palms, asking for mercy for their husband. Kaliya too recognised the greatness of Krishna and surrendered, promising he would not harass anybody again. Krishna pardoned him after performing a final dance upon his head. After the performance, Krishna asked Kaliya to leave the river and return to Ramanaka island, where, he promised, that Kaliya would not be troubled by Garuda. The Brahmana text, Maitrayani Samhita, narrates: “Yami grieved instantly the death of Yama, the first mortal to die. As there was continuously daytime at the start of creation, Yami was unable to understand the lapse of time since Yama’s death. The gods created night separating two days so that Yami understood that time was passing and slowly recovered from her sorrow.” Frequent instances of firing and shootouts, easy availability of pistols and kattas and alleged gang wars … locals in this Jharkhand town have been longing for peaceThe longest tributary of the Ganga in India and an immensely significant river in its own right, Yamuna rises in the Yamunotri glacier and flows through 1,376 km, passing the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Delhi, finally merging with the Ganga at Triveni Sangam, Prayagraj. In all, the river drains a total of 3,66,223 sq km – 40.2% of the entire Ganga Basin.

Yamuna is witness to several festivals that are observed along its length and breadth. Pushkaram, Chhath Puja and Makar Sankranti are some of the bigger names. However, not surprisingly, the biggest of them all is the Prayagraj Kumbh Mela, the largest religious event in the world, held in cycles of six years (Ardh Kumbh Mela) and 12 years (Purna Kumbh Mela). During the melas, usually held in the winter months (maagh) the city and its riverbanks are transformed into a sprawling mass of humanity that celebrates harmony and Hinduism.
Just like the Ganga, the Yamuna is also highly venerated in Hinduism and treated as a goddess. It is known as Yami in early texts, while in literature of the later periods, she is called Kalindi. In Hindu scriptures, she is worshipped as the daughter of the sun god, Surya, and his wife Saranyu or Sanjana, the cloud goddess. Other texts, however, say she was the daughter of Brahma. The twin sister of Yama, the god of death, Yamuna is also associated with the god Krishna, and is mentioned as one of his ashtabharya, his eight consorts. As a river, it plays an important role, both in his early life and youth. Bathing or drinking in Yamuna’s waters is believed to wash away all sins. Her other siblings include Vaivasvata Manu, the first man, and the twin Ashvins, divine doctors, and the planet Saturn (shani). She is often portrayed as Surya’s favourite child, which is evident from her other names – Suryatanaya, Suryaja and Ravinandini.The Vamana Purana narrates the story of how Yamuna’s originally clear waters turned black. Distraught by the death of his wife Sati, Shiva wandered the universe with her corpse on his shoulders. The god of love, Kamadeva, shot Shiva with the arrow, Unmadastra, which made Shiva restless. Thinking of his amorous union with Sati, an excited Shiva jumped into Yamuna to overcome the sexual urge. His mad frenzy, sorrow and unfulfilled desire mingled to turn her waters black.

According to Vedic beliefs, the twins Yama and Yami are considered to be a divine pair of creator deities – while Yama is depicted as the Lord of Death, Yami is said to be the Lady of Life. Yami also addresses a hymn to Yama in the Rig Veda, describing various drinks offered to those dying, in the afterlife. The Taittiriya Samhita says that Yama is Agni (fire) and Yami is the Earth. Yami is further described in association with the Earth, and is related to the goddess of graveyards and sorrow, Nirriti, another partner of Yama according to the Vedas. In the Brahmanas, however, she retains the central role of being Yama’s twin sister in the Samhita texts. In the Purushamedha rite in the Shatapatha Brahmana, a mother of twins is sacrificed to Yami, while twins are offered in the Taittiriya Brahmana.

Another legend in the sixteenth chapter of the tenth canto of the Bhagavata Purana explains the darkness of Yamuna waters differently. Kaliya, the seven-hooded giant serpent lived in the island of Ramanaka, but he was driven away out of the fear of Garuda, the foe of all serpents. Garuda had been cursed by the sage Saubhari (who lived in Vrindavan) such that he could not come to Vrindavan without meeting his death. Therefore, Kaliya chose Vrindavan as his abode, well aware that it was the only place where Garuda could not come.Devotional singing of kirtans, religious discussions and debates are a common sight during the Kumbh Mela. Anna dana (food charity) events are also conducted by families for monks especially after they observe a full-day vrata (fast). There are also community meals (maha prasada) where volunteers serve strictly vegetarian food to a contingent of pilgrims. In recent times, with significant government backing and investment in infrastructure, the Kumbh Mela (especially the one in Prayagraj) has also witnessed a spate of cultural events – arts-and-crafts events, music and dance shows, laser light displays, boat rides, guided walks and tours to touristy, historic places and monastic sites, to name a few.

Ancient iconographic depictions of Yamuna are seen on temple doorjambs, paired with that of Ganga, dating back to the Gupta era. The Agni Purana describes Yamuna as being black in complexion, standing astride her mount, the tortoise, holding an urn bearing water in her hand.

Which is the important city on the way of Yamuna river?
Vrindavan. Vrindavan, also called Vrndaban, or Brindaban, town in western Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It is situated on the west bank of the Yamuna River, just north of Mathura. The town is the sacred centre of the Hindu deity Krishna and those who worship him. CachedSimilar
The killing of girl student by her classmate inside a prestigious college in Greater Noida shows the apathy of the system in addressing gender-based violenceSoon, the people of Gokul flocked to the river banks to see the events unfold. Fearful of the snake, Krishna’s mother Yashoda ordered him to return at once. Meanwhile, Kaliya attempted to escape, but Krishna stomped on his tail and warned him to never trouble anyone again, before returning to his people. The next day, Krishna was playing a ball game across the Yamuna with Radha and her friends. After the ball fell into the river, Radha tried to retrieve it, but Krishna offered to do so instead. When he jumped into the Yamuna, Kaliya constricted him again and began dragging him to its depths.

Is Yamuna a city?
Yamuna NagarMathuraAgraPrayagrajNoidaEtawah Yamuna River/Cities
Concerned, the people of Gokul came running towards the river bank. At the bottom, Kaliya had trapped Krishna in his coils. Krishna expanded himself, forcing Kaliya to release him. Krishna immediately regained his original form and began to jump on all of Kaliya’s seven heads to release the poison in the snake so that he could no longer pollute the Yamuna.The sibling bond between Yama and Yamuna is celebrated in the festival of bhau-beej or bhai dooj during Diwali, when a sister performs arti and is given a gift by her brother. A prayer is recited by the sister. Then she requests him to enjoy her offerings of food and eat them to please Yama and Yamuna.

Just like the Ganga, there are many holy sites associated with Yamuna. However, it is probably Prayagraj that is the most significant, especially since it is the meeting point of two of India’s most important rivers and a mythical one (Saraswati). The presence of a triveni sangam is the reason why pilgrimages are made to the city to wash away all sins and be free from the cycle of death and rebirth. Additionally, its strategic river-based location made it a much-coveted city for rulers and administrators looking to expand their kingdoms and gain access to other regions – from the time of the Mughals (and before) to the era of the British Raj. Prayagraj also evolved into a city of letters and literature, eventually becoming the literary capital of Uttar Pradesh. It is recognised as the place that gave rise to modernism in Hindi literature.
Before taking a dip in the waters, many devotees have their heads shaved (in a mundan ceremony). They also make offerings in the form of flowers, sindoor, milk and coconut, before reciting prayers and hymns in honour of one’s ancestors. After the bath, which is said to drive away all sins, many pilgrims head to the temples and sites of worship in the city. There are other pilgrims who partake of darshan (with a greater focus on the act of visually taking it all in) and then freely interact with the sadhus in the area.Subscribe to get complete access to Outlook Print and Digital Magazines, Web Exclusive stories and the Archive. Attractive gifts with each subscription.

Which river is drinking water in Delhi?
the Yamuna DJB is responsible for the supply of potable water in Delhi, for which it is dependent on the supply of raw water through Carrier Line Channel, Delhi Sub Branch and the Yamuna, which flows through Haryana before entering Delhi.
The people who had gathered on the banks of Yamuna were terrified, on seeing the water change to a dark, poisonous colour. Krishna slowly rose up from the bottom of the river while dancing on Kaliya’s head. When the people saw Krishna, they too danced upon Kaliya, pushing him into the netherworld – Patala – where he is said to reside to this day. However, even though the serpent was banished, the colour of the Yamuna’s waters remained dark.Yamuna’s other name, Kalindi, may have been derived from her association with Yama, the lord of death and darkness, who is also called Kala. Another source suggests that she derives the name Kalindi from her “earthly” source – the mountain Kalinda. Some legends claim it is Yamuna’s dark waters that give her the name Kalindi.

Once, the sage, Durvasa, arrived as a guest and was served by Radha. After this episode, Radha took a walk across Yamuna, when she suddenly came upon the giant serpent and was terrified. She fled to Vrindavan, informing people that she had seen a giant serpent in the river. Lord Krishna was incensed on hearing this and wanted to teach a lesson to Kaliya. He went to the river looking for the serpent, who, upon seeing Krishna, coiled around his legs and constricted him.
Yamuna’s iconographic depiction is seen on temple doorjambs, paired with that of Ganga (the goddess of the Ganges), since the Gupta era. The Agni Purana describes Yamuna as black in complexion, standing on her mount, the tortoise, and holding a water pot in her hand. In an ancient painting she is shown as a beautiful maiden standing on the banks of the river.Yami also addresses a hymn to Yama in the Rig Veda, describing various drinks offered to dying sacrificers in the after-life. The Brahmana text Taittiriya Samhita says that Yama is Agni (fire) and Yami is the earth. Yami is thus further described as an association with the earth, relating her to the goddess of graveyards and sorrow, Nirriti, another partner of Yama in the Vedas. In the Brahmanas; however retains the central role of being Yama’s twin sister in the Samhita texts. In the Purushamedha rite in the Shatapatha Brahmana, a mother of twins is sacrificed to Yami, while twins are offered in the Taittiriya Brahmana. Yamuna is a sacred river in Hinduism and the main tributary of the Ganges River. The river is also worshipped as a Hindu goddess called Yamuna. Yamuna is known as Yami in early texts, while in later literature, she is called Kalindi. In Hindu scriptures, she is the daughter of Surya, the sun god, and Sanjna, the cloud goddess. She is also the twin sister of Yama, god of death. She is associated with the deity Krishna as one of his eight principal consorts, called the Ashtabharya. Yamuna plays an important role in Krishna’s early life as a river. According to Hindu scriptures, bathing in or drinking Yamuna’s waters removes sin. According to O’Flaherty, Yami is considered to be the twin sister of Yama in Vedic beliefs. Yama and Yami are a divine pair of creator deities. While Yama is depicted as the Lord of Death, Yami is said to be the Lady of Life.In the dialogue hymn between Yama and Yamī (RV 10.10), as the first two humans, Yamī tries to convince her twin brother Yama to have sex with her. Yamī makes a variety of arguments, including continuing the mortal line, that Tvashtar created them as a couple in the womb, and that Dyaush and Prithvi are famous for their incest. Yama argues that their ancestors, “the Gandharva in the waters and the watery maiden,” as a reason not to commit incest, that Mitra-Varuna are strict in their ordinances, and that they have spies everywhere. By the end of the hymn, Yamī becomes frustrated but Yama remains firm in his stance. However, by RV 10.13.4, Yama is stated to have chosen to leave offspring, but Yamī is not mentioned.

The Bhagavata Purana also narrates: Krishna’s elder brother Balarama was staying in Ambadi on Yamuna’s banks for a few months. Once, he was frolicking with the gopis on the river banks and desired to play in the waters. Experiencing the heat of the sun, Balarama felt a need to take a bath in the river. However, he refused to walk to the waters and called upon the river to come near him, but the chaste Yamuna refused despite repeated orders from Balarama. An angry Balarama dragged the river by his weapon – the plough and changed its course, hurting the river goddess. Terrified, the river assumed her form as a goddess and bowed to Balarama and asked his forgiveness. A pacified Balarama ordered the river to flood the forest so he could bathe and play in her waters, and the river complied.
The name Kalindi may be derived from her association with Yama, the god of death and darkness as Kala. Another source suggests that she derives the name Kalindi from her “earthly” source, the mountain Kalinda. Some legends also explain Yamuna’s darkness and thus her name Kalindi. The Vamana Purana narrates the tale how the originally clear waters turned black. Distraught by the death of his wife Sati, Shiva wandered the whole universe. Ever thinking of Sati, Shiva jumped into Yamuna to overcome the sorrow and memories of Sati, turning her waters into black by his sorrow and unfulfilled desire. Another legend describes that Krishna defeated and banished the serpent Kaliya in the Yamuna. While the dark serpent entered the waters, the river became dark.

Various Puranas narrate the greatness of bathing in the Yamuna. The Padma Purana narrates the story of two brothers, who lived a life of indulgence and lust and gave up the virtuous ways. They finally plunged in poverty and resorted to robbery and were killed by beasts in the forest. Both of them reached Yama’s court for judgement. While the elder brother was sentenced to Naraka (hell), the younger was granted Svarga (heaven). Astonished, the younger brother asked the reason for it, as both had lived similar lives. Yama explained that the younger brother had lived in the ashram of a sage on Yamuna’s banks and bathed in the sacred river for two months. The first month absolved him of sins and the second one granted him a place in heaven.
The Brahmana text Maitrayani Samhita narrates: Yami grieved instantly the death of Yama, the first mortal to die. As there was continuously daytime at the start of creation, Yami was unable to understand the lapse of time since Yama’s death. The gods created night separating two days so that Yami understood that time was passing and slowly recovered from her sorrow. The concept of the pair of twins with the festival of Bhau-beej, celebrated by a brother and a sister, honors the divine siblings. A prayer recited by the sister to her brother requests him to enjoy her offerings of food and eat them to please Yama and Yamuna.Yamuna is one of the holiest rivers in Hinduism. Yamuna is only second to the Ganges (Ganga), the holiest river in Hinduism. Her confluence with the Ganges and the mythical Sarasvati River is called Triveni Sangam, which is a very holy pilgrimage spot. Other pilgrimage sites along the river banks include Yamuna’s source Yamunotri, Mathura and Bateshvar.

The Mahabharata mentions Yamuna being one of the seven tributaries of the Ganges. Drinking its waters is described to absolve sin. The river is mentioned many times in the epic as backdrop for events like yajnas (sacrifices), austerities and even a suicide by a defeated minister Hamsa of Jarasandha.
In the Puranic literature, Yamuna is described as the daughter of the sun god Surya (though some say that she was the daughter of Brahma) and his wife Saranyu (Sanjna in later literature), the goddess of the clouds, and the twin sister of Yama, the god of death. Her other brothers include Vaivasvata Manu, the first man, the twin Ashvins, or divine physicians, and the planet Saturn (Shani). She is described as Surya’s favourite child
. As the daughter of Surya, she is also called as Suryatanaya, Suryaja, and Ravinandini.In Krishna’s birth-story, Krishna’s father Vasudeva was carrying the new-born Krishna to safety was crossing the Yamuna river. He asked Yamuna to make a way for him to cross the river, which she did by creating a passage. This was the first time that she saw Krishna whom she marries in later life. Yamuna wanted to touch the feet of the baby which she did at deeper depths of the river and as a result the river became very calm.

The Bhagavata Purana narrates: Once, an adult Krishna visited his cousins – the five Pandava brothers with their common wife Draupadi and their mother Kunti in their capital Indraprastha (modern-day Delhi), located on the banks of the Yamuna. The eldest Pandava Yudhishthira requests Krishna to stay with them for a couple of days. One day, Krishna and the middle Pandava Arjuna go for hunting in the forest. During their hunting, Arjuna was tired. He and Krishna went to the Yamuna and bathed and drank the clear water. There, a lovely girl was strolling along the river bank. Krishna who saw her and asked Arjuna to meet her to know who she was. When Arjuna inquired, the girl told him that she was Kalindi, the daughter of Surya, and that she was living in a house constructed by her father in the river where she has been was performing austerities with intent to have Vishnu as her husband and would remain there, until she finds him. Arjuna conveys Kalindi’s message to Krishna, the avatar of Vishnu, who readily agreed to marry the beautiful damsel. Then they traveled to Indraprastha with Kalindi in the chariot and met Yudhishthira. After a stay of few days there, Krishna and Kalindi returned to his capital Dvaraka with their entourage and duly married each other. According to the Bhagavata Purana she had ten sons: Shruta, Kavi, Vrsa, Vira, Subahu, Bhadra, Santi, Darsa, Purnamasa, and the youngest, Somaka. The Vishnu Purana mentions that she had many sons headed by Shruta.

Why did Yamuna turn black?
Distraught by the death of his wife Sati, Shiva wandered the whole universe. Ever thinking of Sati, Shiva jumped into Yamuna to overcome the sorrow and memories of Sati, turning her waters into black by his sorrow and unfulfilled desire.
A tale explains her name Yamuna: Sanjna was unable to bear her husband, the sun’s heat, and its light and closed her eyes in his presence. Surya felt insulted and said that their son will be known as Yama (“restraint”), due to the restraint she showed. Thereafter, Sanjna tried her best to keep her eyes open, however she flickered them angering Surya again who proclaimed that her daughter would be Yamuna. Since Sanjna had tried to keep the eyes open, Yamuna was blessed that she would worshipped as a goddess and remembered throughout time.We and our partners use cookies to Store and/or access information on a device. We and our partners use data for Personalised ads and content, ad and content measurement, audience insights and product development. An example of data being processed may be a unique identifier stored in a cookie. Some of our partners may process your data as a part of their legitimate business interest without asking for consent. To view the purposes they believe they have legitimate interest for, or to object to this data processing use the vendor list link below. The consent submitted will only be used for data processing originating from this website. If you would like to change your settings or withdraw consent at any time, the link to do so is in our privacy policy accessible from our home page.. Ancient cities often emerged in close proximity to rivers due to several compelling factors. Firstly, water has always been essential for human existence, and rivers have consistently served as reliable sources of drinking water and sustenance for agriculture. Additionally, rivers have facilitated transportation and trade, enabling the growth of early civilizations. Furthermore, rivers have provided a diverse range of livelihoods by offering a valuable food source in the form of fish. Over time, these small settlements expanded into large cities, exemplified by present-day urban centers like Delhi, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, and Lucknow, all flourishing along the banks of rivers. The Yamuna then passes Delhi, where it feeds the Agra Canal. South of Delhi, and now wholly within Uttar Pradesh, it turns southeastward near Mathura and passes Agra, Firozabad, and Etawah. Below Etawah it receives a number of southern tributaries, the largest of which are the Chambal, the Sindh, the Betwa, and the Ken. Near Prayagraj (Allahabad), after a course of about 855 miles (1,376 km), the Yamuna joins the Ganges (Ganga) River. The confluence of the two rivers is an especially sacred place to Hindus and is the site of annual festivals as well as the Kumbh Mela, which is held every 12 years and is attended by millions of devotees.

What are the 5 cities near Ganga river?
The major cities located on the river Ganga are Lucknow, Allahabad, Patna, Kanpur, Kolkata and Varanasi.
Yamuna River, also called Jumna, major river of northern India, primarily in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh states. It is one of the country’s most sacred rivers.Traffic on the Yamuna is light. Above Agra it shrinks to a small stream in summer, partly because of the amount of water removed by the canals for irrigation and domestic consumption. The river, however, has become one of the most-polluted in India, because so much of its course is through extremely densely populated areas where vast quantities of sewage have been discharged directly into it. In the early 1990s the national government, with financial assistance from Japan, began implementing the Yamuna Action Plan, a multiphase project that has been partly successful at reducing the river’s pollution levels.

What is special about Yamuna?
The twin sister of Yama, the god of death, Yamuna is also associated with the god Krishna, and is mentioned as one of his ashtabharya, his eight consorts. As a river, it plays an important role, both in his early life and youth. Bathing or drinking in Yamuna’s waters is believed to wash away all sins.
The Yamuna rises on the slopes of the Bandarpunch massif in the Great Himalayas near Yamnotri (Jamnotri) in western Uttarakhand. It flows in a southerly direction swiftly through the Himalayan foothills and, exiting Uttarakhand, onto the Indo-Gangetic Plain, along the border between Uttar Pradesh and Haryana state to the west. The Eastern and Western Yamuna canals are fed from the river at that point.2 great crossword puzzle results we’ve gathered for the crossword clue CITY ON THE YAMUNA RIVER. Alternative crossword puzzle dictionary solutions are : Delhi, Agra.For CITY ON THE YAMUNA RIVER the shortest solution has only 4 letters. The longest solution for CITY ON THE YAMUNA RIVER has 5 letters in total. You are welcome to send us more solution suggestions.