Flood forecasting systems are established at Poanta Sahib, where Tons, Pawar and Giri tributaries meet. The river take 60 hours to travel from Tajewala to Delhi, thus allowing a two-day advance flood warning period. The Central Water Commission started flood-forecasting services in 1958 with its first forecasting station on Yamuna at Delhi Railway Bridge.Yamuna is mentioned as Iomanes (Ioames) in the surveys of Seleucus I Nicator, an officer of Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi, who visited India in 305 BCE. Greek traveller and geographer Megasthenes visited India sometime before 288 BCE (the date of Chandragupta’s death) and mentioned the river in his Indica, where he described the region around it as the land of Surasena. In Mahabharata, the Pandava capital of Indraprastha was situated on the banks of Yamuna, considered to be the site of modern Delhi.
The main canal is 86 kilometres (53 mi) long. When including its branches and many major and minor irrigation channels, it has a total length of 325 km (202 mi) The WYC begins at the Hathni Kund Barrage about 38 km (24 mi) from Dakpathar and south of Doon Valley. The canals irrigate vast tracts of land in the region in Ambala, Karnal, Sonipat, Rohtak, Jind, Hisar and Bhiwani districts.A proposed heavy freight canal, the Sutlej–Yamuna Link (SYL), is being built westwards from near Yamuna’s headwaters through the Punjab region near an ancient caravan route and highlands pass to the navigable parts of the Sutlej–Indus watershed. This will connect the Ganges, which flows to the east coast of the subcontinent, with points west (via Pakistan). When completed, the SYL will allow shipping from India’s east coast to the west coast and the Arabian sea, shortening important commercial links for north-central India’s large population. The canal starts near Delhi, and is designed to transfer Haryana’s share of 4.3 km (3,500,000 acre⋅ft) from the Indus Basin.Yamuna, as a river and goddess, has a close association with Krishna. The Puranas narrate many stories about Krishna in relation to the river and its surroundings. One such story is of Kaliya Daman, the subduing of Kaliya, a Nāga which had inhabited the river and terrorised the people of Braja. Due to Krishna’s connection with the River and the Braja region, the Yamuna River is a center of pilgrimage for his devotees. In the Pushti Marga, founded by Vallabhacharya and in which Krishna is the main deity, Yamuna is worshipped as a goddess.On 25 April 2014, the National Green Tribunal Act (NGA) recommended the government to declare a 52-kilometre (32 mi) stretch of the Yamuna in Delhi and Uttar Pradesh as a conservation zone. A report prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) panel was submitted to the NGA on the same day.Like the Ganges, the Yamuna is highly venerated in Hinduism and worshipped as the goddess Yamuna. She is the daughter of the sun god, Surya, and the sister of Yama, the god of death, and so she is also known as Yami. According to popular Hindu legends, bathing in Yamuna’s sacred waters frees one from the torments of death.
Nearly 57 million people depend on the Yamuna’s waters, and the river accounts for more than 70 percent of Delhi’s water supply. It has an annual flow of 97 billion cubic metres, and nearly 4 billion cubic metres are consumed every year (of which irrigation constitutes 96%). At the Hathni Kund Barrage, its waters are diverted into two large canals: the Western Yamuna Canal flowing towards Haryana and the Eastern Yamuna Canal towards Uttar Pradesh. Beyond that point the Yamuna is joined by the Somb, a seasonal rivulet from Haryana, and by the highly polluted Hindon River near Noida, by Najafgarh drain near Wazirabad and by various other drains, so that it continues only as a trickling sewage-bearing drain before joining the Chambal at Pachnada in the Etawah District of Uttar Pradesh.The present Sarsuti river which originates in the Shivalik hills in Himachal and Haryana border and merges with Ghaggar River near Pehowa is the palaeochannel of Yamuna. Yamuna changed its course to the east due to a shift in the slope of the earth’s crust caused by plate tectonics.The name Yamuna seems to be derived from the Sanskrit word “yama”, meaning ‘twin’, and it may have been applied to the river because it runs parallel to the Ganges.The Yamuna defines the state borders between Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, and between Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh. When the Yamuna reaches the Indo-Gangetic plain, it runs almost parallel to the Ganges, the two rivers creating the Ganges-Yamuna Doab region. Spread across 69,000 square kilometres (27,000 sq mi), one-third of the alluvial plain, the region is known for its agricultural output, particularly for the cultivation of basmati rice. The plain’s agriculture supports one-third of India’s population.Geological evidence indicates that in the distant past the Yamuna was a tributary of the Ghaggar River (identified by some as the Vedic Sarasvati River). It later changed its course eastward, becoming a tributary of the Ganges. While some have argued that this was due to a tectonic event, and may have led to the Sarasvati River drying up, the end of many Harappan civilisation settlements, and creation of the Thar desert, recent geological research suggests that the diversion of the Yamuna to the Ganges may have occurred during the Pleistocene, and thus could not be connected to the decline of the Harappan civilisation in the region.Subsequently, the Yamuna flows through the states of Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh before merging with the Ganges at a sacred spot known as Triveni Sangam in Allahabad. Pilgrims travel by boats to platforms erected in midstream to offer prayers. During the Kumbh Mela, held every 12 years, large congregations of people immerse themselves in the sacred waters of the confluence. The cities of Baghpat, Delhi, Noida, Mathura, Agra, Firozabad, Etawah, Kalpi, Hamirpur, and Allahabad lie on its banks. At Etawah, it meets it another important tributary, Chambal, followed by a host of tributaries further down, including, Sindh, the Betwa, and Ken.
The Padma Purana describes Yamuna’s purifying properties and states that her waters cleanse the mind from sin. It also mentions that bathing in her sacred waters frees one from the torments of death. Art from the Gupta period depict Yamuna and Ganga on the entrances and doorjambs of temples and sacred places. Upon passing through these doors, visitors were symbolically purified by these rivers.To address river pollution, measures have been taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) in 12 towns of Haryana, 8 towns of Uttar Pradesh, and Delhi, under the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) which has been implemented since 1993 by the MoEF’s National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD). The Japan Bank for International Cooperation is participating in the YAP in 15 of the towns (excluding 6 towns of Haryana included later on the direction of the Supreme Court of India) with soft loan assistance of 17.773 billion Japanese yen (equivalent to about ₹700 crore [7 billion rupees]) while the government of India is providing the funds for the remaining 6 towns. In 2007, the Indian government’s plans to repair sewage lines were predicted to improve the water quality of the river 90% by 2010.In August 2009, the Delhi Jal Board (DJB) initiated its plan for resuscitating the Yamuna’s 22-kilometre (14 mi) stretch in Delhi by constructing interceptor sewers, at the cost of about ₹1,800 crore (18 billion rupees).The Yamuna (Hindustani: pronounced [jəmunaː]) is the second-largest tributary river of the Ganges by discharge and the longest tributary in India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of about 4,500 m (14,800 ft) on the southwestern slopes of Bandarpunch peaks of the Lower Himalaya in Uttarakhand, it travels a total length of 1,376 kilometres (855 mi) and has a drainage system of 366,223 square kilometres (141,399 sq mi), 40.2% of the entire Ganges Basin. It merges with the Ganges at Triveni Sangam, Allahabad, which is a site of the Kumbh Mela, a Hindu festival held every 12 years. The water quality in Upper Yamuna, as the 375-kilometre (233 mi) long stretch of Yamuna is called from its origin at Yamunotri to Okhla barrage, is of “reasonably good quality” until the Wazirabad barrage in Delhi. Below this, the discharge of wastewater in Delhi through 15 drains between Wazirabad barrage and Okhla barrage renders the river severely polluted. Wazirabad barrage to Okhla Barrage, 22 km (14 mi) stretch of Yamuna in Delhi, is less than 2% of Yamuna’s total length but accounts for nearly 80% of the total pollution in the river. Untreated wastewater and poor quality of water discharged from the wastewater treatment plants are the major reasons of Yamuna’s pollution in Delhi. To address river pollution, measures have been taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) under the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) which has been implemented since 1993 by the MoEF’s National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD). The source of Yamuna lies in the Yamunotri Glacier at an elevation of 6,387 metres (20,955 ft), on the southwestern slopes of Banderpooch peaks, which lie in the Mussoorie range of the Lower Himalayas, north of Haridwar in Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand. Yamunotri temple, a shrine dedicated to the goddess Yamuna, is one of the holiest shrines in Hinduism, and part of the Chota Char Dham Yatra circuit. Also standing close to the temple, on its 13-kilometre (8 mi) trek route that follows the right bank of the river, lies Markendeya Tirtha, where the sage Markandeya wrote the Markandeya Purana.
Sadhus and pilgrims from various sects, many of whom arrive barefoot, await their turn after welcoming the 13 sadhu akharas who bathe first. These sadhus, scantily clad and often smeared with ashes, arrive in a procession with banners, flags, elephants, horses and musicians. This holy event, called the shahi snan or rajyogi snan, opens up the event for other devotees and pilgrims who can then take a dip in the Ganga. These sacred baths usually happen on the days of the amavasya (new moon, which is the most auspicious) and the purnima (full moon).Suddenly, springing onto Kaliya’s head, Krishna, bearing the weight of the whole universe, started beating him with his feet. Kaliya started throwing up blood and began to show signs of collapsing. At that moment, Kaliya’s wives appeared and prayed to Krishna with joined palms, asking for mercy for their husband. Kaliya too recognised the greatness of Krishna and surrendered, promising he would not harass anybody again. Krishna pardoned him after performing a final dance upon his head. After the performance, Krishna asked Kaliya to leave the river and return to Ramanaka island, where, he promised, that Kaliya would not be troubled by Garuda. The Brahmana text, Maitrayani Samhita, narrates: “Yami grieved instantly the death of Yama, the first mortal to die. As there was continuously daytime at the start of creation, Yami was unable to understand the lapse of time since Yama’s death. The gods created night separating two days so that Yami understood that time was passing and slowly recovered from her sorrow.” Frequent instances of firing and shootouts, easy availability of pistols and kattas and alleged gang wars … locals in this Jharkhand town have been longing for peaceThe longest tributary of the Ganga in India and an immensely significant river in its own right, Yamuna rises in the Yamunotri glacier and flows through 1,376 km, passing the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Delhi, finally merging with the Ganga at Triveni Sangam, Prayagraj. In all, the river drains a total of 3,66,223 sq km – 40.2% of the entire Ganga Basin.Just like the Ganga, the Yamuna is also highly venerated in Hinduism and treated as a goddess. It is known as Yami in early texts, while in literature of the later periods, she is called Kalindi. In Hindu scriptures, she is worshipped as the daughter of the sun god, Surya, and his wife Saranyu or Sanjana, the cloud goddess. Other texts, however, say she was the daughter of Brahma. The twin sister of Yama, the god of death, Yamuna is also associated with the god Krishna, and is mentioned as one of his ashtabharya, his eight consorts. As a river, it plays an important role, both in his early life and youth. Bathing or drinking in Yamuna’s waters is believed to wash away all sins. Her other siblings include Vaivasvata Manu, the first man, and the twin Ashvins, divine doctors, and the planet Saturn (shani). She is often portrayed as Surya’s favourite child, which is evident from her other names – Suryatanaya, Suryaja and Ravinandini.The Vamana Purana narrates the story of how Yamuna’s originally clear waters turned black. Distraught by the death of his wife Sati, Shiva wandered the universe with her corpse on his shoulders. The god of love, Kamadeva, shot Shiva with the arrow, Unmadastra, which made Shiva restless. Thinking of his amorous union with Sati, an excited Shiva jumped into Yamuna to overcome the sexual urge. His mad frenzy, sorrow and unfulfilled desire mingled to turn her waters black.
According to Vedic beliefs, the twins Yama and Yami are considered to be a divine pair of creator deities – while Yama is depicted as the Lord of Death, Yami is said to be the Lady of Life. Yami also addresses a hymn to Yama in the Rig Veda, describing various drinks offered to those dying, in the afterlife. The Taittiriya Samhita says that Yama is Agni (fire) and Yami is the Earth. Yami is further described in association with the Earth, and is related to the goddess of graveyards and sorrow, Nirriti, another partner of Yama according to the Vedas. In the Brahmanas, however, she retains the central role of being Yama’s twin sister in the Samhita texts. In the Purushamedha rite in the Shatapatha Brahmana, a mother of twins is sacrificed to Yami, while twins are offered in the Taittiriya Brahmana.
Another legend in the sixteenth chapter of the tenth canto of the Bhagavata Purana explains the darkness of Yamuna waters differently. Kaliya, the seven-hooded giant serpent lived in the island of Ramanaka, but he was driven away out of the fear of Garuda, the foe of all serpents. Garuda had been cursed by the sage Saubhari (who lived in Vrindavan) such that he could not come to Vrindavan without meeting his death. Therefore, Kaliya chose Vrindavan as his abode, well aware that it was the only place where Garuda could not come.Devotional singing of kirtans, religious discussions and debates are a common sight during the Kumbh Mela. Anna dana (food charity) events are also conducted by families for monks especially after they observe a full-day vrata (fast). There are also community meals (maha prasada) where volunteers serve strictly vegetarian food to a contingent of pilgrims. In recent times, with significant government backing and investment in infrastructure, the Kumbh Mela (especially the one in Prayagraj) has also witnessed a spate of cultural events – arts-and-crafts events, music and dance shows, laser light displays, boat rides, guided walks and tours to touristy, historic places and monastic sites, to name a few.
Ancient iconographic depictions of Yamuna are seen on temple doorjambs, paired with that of Ganga, dating back to the Gupta era. The Agni Purana describes Yamuna as being black in complexion, standing astride her mount, the tortoise, holding an urn bearing water in her hand.
. As the daughter of Surya, she is also called as Suryatanaya, Suryaja, and Ravinandini.In Krishna’s birth-story, Krishna’s father Vasudeva was carrying the new-born Krishna to safety was crossing the Yamuna river. He asked Yamuna to make a way for him to cross the river, which she did by creating a passage. This was the first time that she saw Krishna whom she marries in later life. Yamuna wanted to touch the feet of the baby which she did at deeper depths of the river and as a result the river became very calm.